Liang W.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China |
Guan G.,State Key Laboratory of MycologyInstitute of Microbiology |
Dai Y.,State Key Laboratory of MycologyInstitute of Microbiology |
Cao C.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China |
And 4 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2016
Microorganisms rarely exist as single species in natural environments. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are common members of the microbiota of several human niches such as the mouth, gut and vagina. Lactic acid bacteria are known to suppress filamentation, a key virulence feature of C. albicans, through the production of lactic acid and other metabolites. Here we report that C. albicans cells switch between two heritable cell types, white and opaque, to undergo filamentation to adapt to diversified environments. We show that acidic pH conditions caused by LAB and low temperatures support opaque cell filamentation, while neutral pH conditions and high temperatures promote white cell filamentation. The cAMP signalling pathway and the Rfg1 transcription factor play major roles in regulating the responses to these conditions. This cell type-specific response of C. albicans to different environmental conditions reflects its elaborate regulatory control of phenotypic plasticity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhao Y.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China |
Li X.-M.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China |
Sha J.,Key Laboratory of Digital Earth ScienceInstitute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2016
Wind streaks are often observed in Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. They are used to determine the sea surface wind direction for sea surface wind field retrievals. It is generally understood that visible wind streaks are caused by roll vortices in the marine atmospheric boundary layer. In this study, 227 X-band spaceborne SAR images of TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X acquired from the three FiNO platforms in the North Sea and Baltic Sea were thoroughly analyzed for a comprehensive understanding of the manifestation of wind streaks in SAR images. Approximately 48.0% of the 227 SAR images displayed wind streaks, among which 67.3%, 20.0%, and 12.7% occurred under unstable, neutral, and stable atmospheric conditions, respectively. The proportions indicate that wind streaks are more likely to be generated from thermal convection. Further investigations suggest that the inflection point and the wind shear may be essential for the appearance of wind streaks in SAR images under stable atmospheric conditions. © 2016. American Geophysical Union.
Jia L.-Y.,Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and EvolutionInstitute of Zoology |
Xiao J.-H.,Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and EvolutionInstitute of Zoology |
Xiong T.-L.,Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and EvolutionInstitute of Zoology |
Niu L.-M.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute |
Huang D.-W.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China
Insect Molecular Biology | Year: 2016
Transformer (tra) is the key gene that turns on the sex-determination cascade in Drosophila melanogaster and in some other insects. The honeybee Apis mellifera has two duplicates of tra, one of which (complementary sex determiner, csd) is the primary signal for complementary sex-determination (CSD), regulating the other duplicate (feminizer). Two tra duplicates have been found in some other hymenopteran species, resulting in the assumption that a single ancestral duplication of tra took place in the Hymenoptera. Here, we searched for tra homologues and pseudogenes in the Hymenoptera, focusing on five newly published hymenopteran genomes. We found three tra copies in the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi. Further evolutionary and expression analyses also showed that the two duplicates (Csoltra-B and Csoltra-C) are under positive selection, and have female-specific expression, suggesting possible sex-related functions. Moreover, Aculeata species exhibit many pseudogenes generated by lineage-specific duplications. We conclude that phylogenetic reconstruction and pseudogene screening provide novel evidence supporting the hypothesis of independent duplications rather an ancestral origin of multiple tra paralogues in the Hymenoptera. The case of C. solmsi is the first example of a non-CSD species with duplicated tra, contrary to the previous assumption that derived tra paralogues function as the CSD locus. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.
Zhang F.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China |
Li Q.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China |
Chen X.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China |
Huo Y.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China |
And 5 more authors.
Insect Molecular Biology | Year: 2016
The arthropod Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) mediates pathogen-specific recognition via an extensive protein isoform repertoire produced by alternative splicing. To date, most studies have focused on the subsequent pathogen-specific immune response, and few have investigated the entry into cells of viruses or endosymbionts. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the cDNA of Laodelphax striatellus Dscam (LsDscam) and investigated the function of LsDscam in rice stripe virus (RSV) infection and the influence on the endosymbiont Wolbachia. LsDscam displayed a typical Dscam domain architecture, including 10 immunoglobulin (Ig) domains, six fibronectin type III domains, one transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic tail. Alternative splicing occurred at the N-termini of the Ig2 and Ig3 domains, the complete Ig7 domain, the transmembrane domain and the C-terminus, comprising 10, 51, 35, two and two variable exons, respectively. Potentially LsDscam could encode at least 71 400 unique isoforms and 17 850 types of extracellular regions. LsDscam was expressed in various L. striatellus tissues. Knockdown of LsDscam mRNA via RNA interference decreased the titres of both RSV and Wolbachia, but did not change the numbers of the extracellular symbiotic bacterium Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae. Specific Dscam isoforms may play roles in enhancing the infection of vector-borne viruses or endosymbionts. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.
Lei Z.,Qingdao University |
Liu B.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China |
Wang J.-H.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China
Hippocampus | Year: 2015
Anxiety disorders are presumably associated with negative memory. Psychological therapies are widely used to treat this mental deficit in human beings based on the view that positive memory competes with negative memory and relieves anxiety status. Cellular and molecular processes underlying psychological therapies remain elusive. Therefore, we have investigated its mechanisms based on a mouse model in which food reward at one open-arm of the elevated plus-maze was used for training mice to form reward memory and challenge the open arms. Mice with the reward training showed increased entries and stay time in reward open-arm versus neutral open-arm as well as in open-arms versus closed-arms. Accompanying with reward memory formation and anxiety relief, glutamatergic synaptic transmission in dentate gyrus in vivo and dendritic spines in granule cells became upregulated. This synaptic up-regulation was accompanied by the expression of more protein kinase C (PKC) in the dendritic spines. The inhibition of PKC by chelerythrine impaired the formation of reward memory, the relief of anxiety-related behavior and the up-regulation of glutamate synapses. Our results suggest that reward-induced positive memory relieves mouse anxiety-related behavior by strengthening synaptic efficacy and PKC in the hippocampus, which imply the underlying cellular and molecular processes involved in the beneficial effects of psychological therapies treating anxiety disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ma N.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China |
Zhang Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Szilagyi J.,Water Resources University |
Guo Y.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China |
And 2 more authors.
Water Resources Research | Year: 2015
The complementary relationship (CR) of evapotranspiration allows the estimation of the actual evapotranspiration rate (ETa) of the land surface using only routine meteorological data, which is of great importance in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) due to its sparse observation network. With the highest in situ automatic climate observation system in a typical semiarid alpine steppe region of the TP, the wind function of Penman was replaced by one based on the Monin-Obukhov Similarity theory for calculating the potential evapotranspiration rate (ETp); the Priestley-Taylor coefficient, α, was estimated using observations in wet days; and the slope of the saturation vapor pressure curve was evaluated at an estimate of the wet surface temperature, provided the latter was smaller than the actual air temperature. A symmetric CR was obtained between the observed daily actual and potential evapotranspiration. Local calibration of the parameter value (in this order) is key to obtaining a symmetric CR: α, wet environment air temperature (Twea), and wind function. Also, present symmetric CR contradicts previous research that used default parameter values for claiming an asymmetric CR in arid and semiarid regions of the TP. The effectiveness of estimating the daily ETa via symmetric CR was greatly improved when local calibrations were implemented. At the same time, an asymmetric CR was found between the observed daily ETa and pan evaporation rates (Epan), both for D20 aboveground and E601B sunken pans. The daily ETa could also be estimated by coupling the Epan of D20 aboveground and/or E601B sunken pan through CR. The former provided good descriptors for observed ETa, while the latter still tended to overestimate it to some extent. © 2015 American Geophysical Union.