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Hangzhou, China

Zhan Z.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | Wang Y.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | Shockey J.,Southern Regional Research Center | Chen Y.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | And 3 more authors.
Silvae Genetica

As a developing country with the world's largest population, China faces a serious challenge in satisfying its continuously increasing energy demands. Tung trees (Vernicia sp., especially V. fordii and V. montana), are multipurpose, perennial plants belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The unique chemical properties of tung seed oil make it one of the best known industrial drying oils. In this review, the breeding status of tung trees in China and some factors which limit the development of tung tree breeding will be summarised. Improvements in ecological performance and pathogen resistance, through to improved breeding methods, will help to rapidly expand the development and use of tung trees and their oil products in China. It is essential for tung tree breeding to advance in the future to keep pace with the increased demand. Source

Yang S.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Yang S.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | Wang Y.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wang Y.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Genomics

The NF-YB transcription factor gene family encodes a subunit of the CCAAT box-binding factor (CBF), a highly conserved trimeric activator that strongly binds to the CCAAT box promoter element. Studies on model plants have shown that NF-YB proteins participate in important developmental and physiological processes, but little is known about NF-YB proteins in trees. Here, we identified seven NF-YB transcription factor-encoding genes in Vernicia fordii, an important oilseed tree in China. A phylogenetic analysis separated the genes into two groups; non-LEC1 type (VfNF-YB1, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13) and LEC1-type (VfNF-YB 14). A gene structure analysis showed that VfNF-YB 5 has three introns and the other genes have no introns. The seven VfNF-YB sequences contain highly conserved domains, a disordered region at the N terminus, and two long helix structures at the C terminus. Phylogenetic analyses showed that VfNF-YB family genes are highly homologous to GmNF-YB genes, and many of them are closely related to functionally characterized NF-YBs. In expression analyses of various tissues (root, stem, leaf, and kernel) and the root during pathogen infection, VfNF-YB1, 5, and 11 were dominantly expressed in kernels, and VfNF-YB7 and 9 were expressed only in the root. Different VfNF-YB family genes showed different responses to pathogen infection, suggesting that they play different roles in the pathogen response. Together, these findings represent the first extensive evaluation of the NF-YB family in tung tree and provide a foundation for dissecting the functions of VfNF-YB genes in seed development, stress adaption, fatty acid synthesis, and pathogen response. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Chen Y.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | Zhou G.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | Wang Y.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | Xu L.,Chinese Academy of Foresty
Industrial Crops and Products

Tung oil, produced from seeds of the tung tree (Vernicia fordii), is a valuable industrial oil. Genetic engineering can improve the oil content, making it more suitable for use in biodiesel, and the pivotal role of DGAT2 in triacylglycerol synthesis has been extensively studied. Our data indicated, however, that DGAT2 expression decreases rapidly during the late period of oil accumulation, which raises the possibility that other key genes might play important roles in triacylglycerol synthesis. Construction of a tung kernel cDNA library and related biochemical analyses was carried out. Notably, F-BOX genes and oleosin-coding genes responsible for oil body structure were the most abundant ESTs in our cDNA library. All the results indicate that F-BOX and oleosin might be actively involved in tung lipid metabolism and serve as additional candidate genes for genetic engineering of the tung tree. © 2010. Source

Sun L.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | Guan W.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | Wang Y.-H.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | Xu L.-H.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | Xiong W.,Chinese Academy of Foresty
Chinese Journal of Ecology

Canopy stomatal conductance is an important parameter in eco-hydrological studies. To understand its responses to environmental factors can offer theoretical basis for developing mechanism-based models of forest transpiration. In this paper, Granier' s probe was adopted to measure the sap flow of a Larix princips-rupprechtii stand in a small watershed of Diediegou in northern part of Liupan Mountains from May to September 2005, and the related environmental factors were simultaneously observed. The canopy transpiration (Ec) and mean canopy stomatal conductance (gc) were calculated, and the observed data were fitted by the Jarivs-type model of canopy stomatal conductance. Then, the responses of gc to environmental factors such as photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR), vapor pressure deficit (DVP), and relative extractable soil water (REW) were analyzed. The results showed that Jarivs-type model could accurately simulate the diurnal variation patterns of gc. The coefficient of determination (R2) between calculated and simulated gc was 0.76 (n = 952). The gc had different responses to environmental factors in a non-linear way. PAR was the driving factor for gc, with the driving effect being stronger when the PAR was <0.35 mmol • m-2 • s-1 while weaker when the PAR was above this threshold. DVP was a limiting factor for gc which decreased with increasing DVP. The response of gc to REW varied. When the REW was less than 41%, it was a key restricting factor to gc; when the REW was higher than 41%, its restricting effect became weaker. Source

Yin Y.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | Jiang X.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | Wang L.,Chinese Academy of Foresty | Bian M.,Chinese Academy of Foresty
Forest Products Journal

A cost-effective estimation of wood quality of hardwood green logs is needed. The purposes of this study were to investigate and compare two nondestructive acoustic methods to predict the wood quality of green logs from a poplar 1-72 (Populus Xeuramericana cv. 1-72158 "San Martino") plantation. After log measurements, small clear wood specimens were cut and air dried to 12 percent moisture content. Thc static bending modulus of elasticity (MOE) of small clear wood specimens was about 15 and 20 percent greater than the dynamic MOE of green logs based on resonance vibration (E fr) and stress wave (E sw). however, good correlations (R) between E fr and E E sw of logs and bending MOE of 0.806 and 0.848 (P < 0.001), respectively, were observed. Significant correlations were also found between the E E fr E E sw and of logs and the modulus of rupture and compressive strength parallel to grain (σ c) of small clear wood specimens (P < 0.00 1). The results indicate that both acoustic techniques were effective predictors of wood quality, although the stress wave method was found to be more accurate and reliable than the resonance vibration method. The longitudinal changes of strength properties with tree height could be tracked by these two methods. © 2011 Forest Products Society. Source

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