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Wu B.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Yang H.,Qingdao Agricultural University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Passive restoration depending on native shrubs is an attractive approach for restoring desertified landscapes in semi-arid sandy regions. We sought to understand the relationships between spatial patterns of native shrubs and their survival ability in sandy environments. Furthermore, we applied our results to better understand whether passive restoration is feasible for desertified landscapes in semi-arid sandy regions. The study was conducted in the semi-arid Mu Us sandy land of northern China with the native shrub Artemisia ordosica. We analyzed population structures and patterns of A. ordosica at the edges and centers of land patches where sand was stabilized by A. ordosica-dominated vegetation. Saplings were more aggregated than adults, and both were more aggregated at the patch edges than at the patch centers. At the patch edges, spatial association of the saplings with the adults was mostly positive at distances 0.3-6.6 m, and turned from positive to neutral, and even negative, at other distances. At the patch centers, the saplings were spaced almost randomly around the adults, and their distances from the adults did not seem to affect their locations. A greater number of A. ordosica individuals emerged at the patch edges than at the patch centers. Such patterns may have resulted from their integrative adjustment to specific conditions of soil water supply and sand drift intensity. These findings suggest that in semi-arid sandy regions, native shrubs that are well-adapted to local environments may serve as low-cost and competent ecological engineers that can promote the passive restoration of surrounding patches of mobile sandy land. © 2013 Wu, Yang.

Wan X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica | Year: 2010

In this study, whether the effect of salt (NaCl) stress on cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp) is via osmotic pressure or ion toxicity and whether abscisic acid (ABA) can release the salt adverse effect were tested. Immediate effects of NaCl and ABA on root cortical cell Lp of maize (Zea mays L.) were detected by measuring changes in half time of water exchange (T 1/2) and turgor of individual single cells with a cell pressure probe for at least 1 h. The results showed that stepwise additions of NaCl (50 mM) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the water permeability. One-step addition of 50 mM NaCl even more drastically decreased Lp. ABA was not able to instantaneously reverse the low water permeability induced by the salt stress. Long-term effects of NaCl, mannitol and sorbitol, and ABA on Lp were measured for 6 days. Both NaCl and a mixture of mannitol and sorbitol, with the same osmotic strength of 0.25 MPa, significantly reduced Lp at the early stage of the treatments. The declined Lp in the salinized cell gradually and partially recovered after 2 days, whereas the Lp with the mannitol and sorbitol mixture treatment was all time inhibited. With long-time treatment, ABA (500 nM) significantly (P < 0.01) increased turgor and Lp of the NaCl-treated cells. In general, NaCl reduced water permeability of corn root cortical cells most likely by an osmotic stress. ABA could not instantaneously change water permeability of the corn root cortical cell subjected to NaCl stress; however, with long-time treatment, ABA was able to in part relieve the salt stress likely by osmotic adjustment.

Wang B.Y.,Chinese Academy of Forestry
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

Camellia reticulata is a well-known ornamental and oil plant that is endemic to southwest China. This species shows three cell ploidies, i.e., diploidy, tetraploidy and hexaploidy. We made the first investigation of genetic diversity and differentiation of natural populations of C. reticulata, and 114 individuals from 6 populations were sampled. Cytogeography results showed that ploidy is invariable within populations and evenly distributed. A relatively high level of genetic diversity was found in C. reticulata, both at the species level (PPB = 88.89%; H = 0.2809; I = 0.4278) and at the population level (mean PPB = 42.13%; mean H = 0.14; mean I = 0.21). We found a relatively low degree of differentiation among ploidies (G(ST) = 0.2384; AMOVA = 10.26%) and a relatively high degree of differentiation among populations (G(CS) = 0.3807; AMOVA = 48.75%). The high genetic diversity can be explained by its biological character, wide distribution and ploidies, and the special genetic structure can be ascribed to polyploid origin from hybridization with different Camellia spp. This information will be useful for the introduction, conservation and further studies of C. reticulata and related species.

Wilbon P.A.,University of South Carolina | Chu F.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Tang C.,University of South Carolina
Macromolecular Rapid Communications | Year: 2013

The development of sustainable renewable polymers from natural resources has increasingly gained attention from scientists, engineers as well as the general public and government agencies. This review covers recent progress in the field of renewable bio-based monomers and polymers from natural resources: terpenes, terpenoids, and rosin, which are a class of hydrocarbon-rich biomass with abundance and low cost, holding much potential for utilization as organic feedstocks for green plastics and composites. This review details polymerization and copolymerization of terpenes such as pinene, limonene, and myrcene and their derivatives, terpenoids including carvone and menthol, and rosin-derived monomers. The future direction on the utilization of these natural resources is discussed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Zhao H.,International Center for Bamboo And Rattan | Zhao H.,Chinese Academy of Forestry
Database : the journal of biological databases and curation | Year: 2014

Bamboo, as one of the most important non-timber forest products and fastest-growing plants in the world, represents the only major lineage of grasses that is native to forests. Recent success on the first high-quality draft genome sequence of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) provides new insights on bamboo genetics and evolution. To further extend our understanding on bamboo genome and facilitate future studies on the basis of previous achievements, here we have developed BambooGDB, a bamboo genome database with functional annotation and analysis platform. The de novo sequencing data, together with the full-length complementary DNA and RNA-seq data of moso bamboo composed the main contents of this database. Based on these sequence data, a comprehensively functional annotation for bamboo genome was made. Besides, an analytical platform composed of comparative genomic analysis, protein-protein interactions network, pathway analysis and visualization of genomic data was also constructed. As discovery tools to understand and identify biological mechanisms of bamboo, the platform can be used as a systematic framework for helping and designing experiments for further validation. Moreover, diverse and powerful search tools and a convenient browser were incorporated to facilitate the navigation of these data. As far as we know, this is the first genome database for bamboo. Through integrating high-throughput sequencing data, a full functional annotation and several analysis modules, BambooGDB aims to provide worldwide researchers with a central genomic resource and an extensible analysis platform for bamboo genome. BambooGDB is freely available at http://www.bamboogdb.org/. Database URL: http://www.bamboogdb.org.

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