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Zhao H.,International Center for Bamboo And Rattan | Zhao H.,Chinese Academy of Forestry
Database : the journal of biological databases and curation | Year: 2014

Bamboo, as one of the most important non-timber forest products and fastest-growing plants in the world, represents the only major lineage of grasses that is native to forests. Recent success on the first high-quality draft genome sequence of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) provides new insights on bamboo genetics and evolution. To further extend our understanding on bamboo genome and facilitate future studies on the basis of previous achievements, here we have developed BambooGDB, a bamboo genome database with functional annotation and analysis platform. The de novo sequencing data, together with the full-length complementary DNA and RNA-seq data of moso bamboo composed the main contents of this database. Based on these sequence data, a comprehensively functional annotation for bamboo genome was made. Besides, an analytical platform composed of comparative genomic analysis, protein-protein interactions network, pathway analysis and visualization of genomic data was also constructed. As discovery tools to understand and identify biological mechanisms of bamboo, the platform can be used as a systematic framework for helping and designing experiments for further validation. Moreover, diverse and powerful search tools and a convenient browser were incorporated to facilitate the navigation of these data. As far as we know, this is the first genome database for bamboo. Through integrating high-throughput sequencing data, a full functional annotation and several analysis modules, BambooGDB aims to provide worldwide researchers with a central genomic resource and an extensible analysis platform for bamboo genome. BambooGDB is freely available at http://www.bamboogdb.org/. Database URL: http://www.bamboogdb.org.

Wilbon P.A.,University of South Carolina | Chu F.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Tang C.,University of South Carolina
Macromolecular Rapid Communications | Year: 2013

The development of sustainable renewable polymers from natural resources has increasingly gained attention from scientists, engineers as well as the general public and government agencies. This review covers recent progress in the field of renewable bio-based monomers and polymers from natural resources: terpenes, terpenoids, and rosin, which are a class of hydrocarbon-rich biomass with abundance and low cost, holding much potential for utilization as organic feedstocks for green plastics and composites. This review details polymerization and copolymerization of terpenes such as pinene, limonene, and myrcene and their derivatives, terpenoids including carvone and menthol, and rosin-derived monomers. The future direction on the utilization of these natural resources is discussed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Wan X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica | Year: 2010

In this study, whether the effect of salt (NaCl) stress on cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp) is via osmotic pressure or ion toxicity and whether abscisic acid (ABA) can release the salt adverse effect were tested. Immediate effects of NaCl and ABA on root cortical cell Lp of maize (Zea mays L.) were detected by measuring changes in half time of water exchange (T 1/2) and turgor of individual single cells with a cell pressure probe for at least 1 h. The results showed that stepwise additions of NaCl (50 mM) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the water permeability. One-step addition of 50 mM NaCl even more drastically decreased Lp. ABA was not able to instantaneously reverse the low water permeability induced by the salt stress. Long-term effects of NaCl, mannitol and sorbitol, and ABA on Lp were measured for 6 days. Both NaCl and a mixture of mannitol and sorbitol, with the same osmotic strength of 0.25 MPa, significantly reduced Lp at the early stage of the treatments. The declined Lp in the salinized cell gradually and partially recovered after 2 days, whereas the Lp with the mannitol and sorbitol mixture treatment was all time inhibited. With long-time treatment, ABA (500 nM) significantly (P < 0.01) increased turgor and Lp of the NaCl-treated cells. In general, NaCl reduced water permeability of corn root cortical cells most likely by an osmotic stress. ABA could not instantaneously change water permeability of the corn root cortical cell subjected to NaCl stress; however, with long-time treatment, ABA was able to in part relieve the salt stress likely by osmotic adjustment.

Chinese Academy of Forestry | Date: 2013-08-30

The present invention discloses a method for preparation of formaldehyde-free plywood from scrap plastic alloys. Different scrap plastics are used to prepare plastic alloy film, which is then used as an adhesive material for the preparation of new plywood without formaldehyde emission. The formaldehyde-free plywood according to the present invention is prepared by the following steps: different scrap plastics are crushed, cleaned separately, and then corresponding fillers and additives are added to the above crushed material or their mixtures which mixed according to a certain blending ratio; plastic alloy film of certain size and thickness is prepared after the film blowing and rolling processes; after being assembled with wood veneers to form a lay-up mat, the mat is hot pressed and then cold pressed. The present invention provides a method of preparing non-toxic and environmentally friendly formaldehyde-free plywood, solving the problem that the environment and human beings being poisoned by the free formaldehyde released from ordinary plywood and at the same time providing a way of recycling and reusing scrap plastics.

Chinese Academy of Forestry | Date: 2012-01-25

Preparation method of pimaric acid type resin acid includes the following steps: (1) adding refined resin acid, turpentine or rosin and maleic anhydride at a mass ratio of 1 :0.3-1.5 into a reaction bottle, dissolving them in C_(1)C_(10) lower fatty acid solvent, the mass ratio of the C_(1)C_(10) low fatty acid to refined resin acid is 0.05-30: 1, then carrying out addition reaction by heating directly or with assistance of microwave, subsequently cooling, crystallizing, filtering, and washing, and (2) combining the filtrates collected in step (1), stripping of the solvent by vacuum distillation to obtain pimaric acid type resin acid coarse product, dissolving the resulting coarse product in NaOH aqueous solution to prepare aqueous solution of pimaric acid type resin acid salt, adjusting pH to 6-14 with a mineral acid or an organic acid under stirring, and directly purifying or acidifying followed by purifying the resulting precipitation to obtain the final product. The method has the characteristics of high yield, high product content, low cost, and low environmental pollution.

Chinese Academy of Forestry | Date: 2011-12-21

The present invention provides a bamboo based panel unit comprising a hunk bamboo bundle mat and an oriented bamboo fiber mat (OBFM). Series of dotted and/or linear shaped cracks are formed on the cylinder wall of a semicircular bamboo tube which is split and whose inner nodes are removed. The upper surface and the lower surface of the bamboo based panel unit comprise an outer layer and an inner layer of said bamboo, wherein, a waxy layer and a siliceous layer are removed respectively therefrom; The present invention also provides a method for manufacturing the bamboo based panel unit, wherein the cracks are formed on the surface of the outer bamboo layer and the inner bamboo layer by a fluffer, therefore a netty structure is formed. Further, during the method, the present invention provides a fluffer, wherein a fluffing roller is distributed with several fluffing teeth, the cutting edges in the fluffing teeth with intervals between the teeth extend in the circumferential direction of the fluffing roller, and several rows of the cutting edges are distributed along the axial direction of the fluffing roller. In the present invention, the semicircular bamboo tube is with good bonding performance and used to manufacture bamboo-based panels, there is no need to remove the outer and inner layer of said bamboo during the above manufacturing process. The processing is simpler and more convenient, and the production efficiency is higher. The small-diameter bamboos can also be fully utilized. The fluffer in the present invention makes the waxy and silicon layers easier to be removed, so that most of the bamboo can be fully exposed, then the production efficiency is high.

The present invention discloses a dynamic tracing control system for the testing environment of formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions from wood-based panels, comprising a computer, a programmable logic controller PLC, a test chamber, a temperature control subsystem and a humidity control subsystem. The temperature control subsystem is used to heat the testing environment of the test chamber. The humidity control subsystem is used to supply the test chamber with air of defined pressure, temperature and humidity. The control program executed by the PLC takes into account such interference factors as outside environment, condition, and atmospheric pressure. After the temperature and humidity signals of the test chamber are collected, a nonlinear mathematical model is established. Decoupling of this mathematical model uses diffeomorphism transformation and dynamic compensator, thus accurately calculating the outputs of the system. This method greatly shortens the time required to achieve the testing conditions, and improves the test accuracy by 7% and saves energy by 10% compared to the control system in the background art.

Chinese Academy of Forestry | Date: 2016-01-27

In one aspect, the present disclosure involves a re-aeration device and re-aeration method for constructed wetland. In one aspect, the re-aeration device comprises a re-aeration pipe and a windmill. The re-aeration pipe has a tubular structure with openings at both ends; one end inserts into the wetland substrate, and the other end connects with the windmill for receiving and accelerating air flow. The re-aeration pipe may also contain several telescoped or parallel arranged pipes with openings at both ends as well as with different pipe diameters and lengths, which connect with the windmill to form the re-aeration device. The present disclosure also provides a method of re-aeration for constructed wetlands by using the above-mentioned device. The re-aeration device provided herein has features of being simple in structure, environment friendly, and low-cost. In one aspect, the re-aeration method is characterized as simple, practicable, energy-efficient, environment friendly, low-cost, widely applicable, and having good effect and high performance on re-aeration.

Chinese Academy of Forestry | Date: 2011-12-21

The present invention provides a bamboo-based panel comprising a hunk bamboo bundle mat based panel and a bamboo fiber reinforced composite. The bamboo-based panel comprises several pieces of the hunk bamboo bundle mats or oriented bamboo fiber mats (OBFM) which are parallel or cross laid up with each other, the glue layer is arranged among them so as to make panels by gluing. The upper surface and the lower surface of said hunk bamboo bundle mat comprise the outer layer and inner layer of said bamboo, wherein, a waxy layer and a siliceous layer are respectively removed therefrom. The hunk bamboo bundle mats or oriented bamboo fiber mats (OBFM) comprises the main part, outer layer and inner layer of said bamboo, and the upper surface and the lower surface of said hunk bamboo bundle mat or oriented bamboo fiber mats (OBFM) comprise the outer layer and said inner layer of said bamboo, wherein, a waxy layer and a siliceous layer are respectively removed therefrom. The present invention also provides the method for manufacturing the bamboo-based panels, which comprise a hunk bamboo bundle mat or an oriented bamboo fiber mat (OBFM) preparation, glue spreading, assembling and pressure forming process. In the present invention, the split bamboo tube is fluffed directly to make the hunk bamboo bundle mat or an oriented bamboo fiber mat (OBFM) with the outer and inner layer of said bamboo, bamboo-based panels with good performance are made by special glue spreading and forming method, so that the unavailable small-diameter bamboo in the existing technology can be fully used, and the process is easier, and the production efficiency is higher.

This study presents the first reported evaluation of Manchurian apricot (. Prunus mandshurica Skv.) seed kernel oil as a promising feedstock for biodiesel preparation, including a comparison with Siberian apricot (. Prunus sibirica L.) oil. The oil content of the Manchurian apricot kernels (55.17. ±. 5.52%) was somewhat higher than that of the Siberian apricot kernels. Similar to Siberian apricot, Manchurian apricot oil has low acid value, indicating that the two oils enabled direct base-catalyzed transesterified for biodiesel production without acid pretreatment. The fatty acid compositions of Manchurian apricot and Siberian apricot oils determined results showed a high percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (69.15% and 67.78%, respectively). Other than cetane number and oxidation stability, the properties of biodiesel made from the two oils conformed to EN 14214-08, ASTM D6751-10 and GB/T 20828-07 standards. In general, Manchurian apricot represents a potentially useful biodiesel feedstock. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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