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Xu K.-D.,Chinese Academy of Engineering
Kang T'ieh/Iron and Steel | Year: 2014

The historical development of New China's special steel production was summarized from the concept of special steel. It includes the economical recovery period when New China was primarily set up, the prototype period of China's special steel system development during the first and the second "Five-Year Plan" period, and the fast development period after the reform and opening-up policy which was also a period of equipment large-sizing and technology modernizing. Finally, the progress of China's special steel development in satisfying the national economy modernization and manufacturing of advanced equipments were described. Source


Du X.-W.,Chinese Academy of Engineering
Advances in Climate Change Research | Year: 2016

This study discusses high-carbon characteristics, the unsustainability of China's development, and the fact that China needs to transform its development mode. China's low-carbon transition must include industry structure adjustment, energy saving and efficiency increases, energy structure improvement, carbon sink development, adaptation capability, and low-carbon pilot schemes.Low-carbon urbanization is a key measure in China's low-carbon transition. China's urbanization faces high-carbon risks. Thus, this study presents a roadmap for transforming urbanization into a low-carbon one. The transition to low-carbon urbanization is a common trend in the developing world. There is a lot of room for international cooperation. © 2016 National Climate Center (China Meteorological Administration). Source


Xu S.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Xu S.,Chinese Academy of Engineering | Xu L.D.,Beijing Jiaotong University
Information Technology and Management | Year: 2011

This paper proposed a new concept of management: Managing According to Reason (MR). Since "manage" means to lead, plan, organize and control, and "reason" means to understand the law of the development of objects being managed, this new concept is an integration of the two elements of "managing" and "reason". MR studies the contradictory relationship between "managing" and "reason", and considers how such a relationship changes and develops. MR is an integration of the disciplines of management, philosophy, natural science, engineering technology, and social science. We believe the MR is a comprehensive scientific discipline that will greatly benefit humanity. Since "management" cannot work without power, while "reason" relies on science, MR is an integration of power and science. Power is MR's assurance, and science is MR's basis. We believe that MR will play a major role in twenty-first century. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Zhou J.,Chinese Academy of Engineering
Zhongguo Jixie Gongcheng/China Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2012

This paper holds that, first of all, as the world economic competition framework is undergoing profound changes, major developed countries have proposed the strategy of "reindustrialization", putting forward significant measures to revitalize manufacturing industries dependent on scientific and technological innovations. A new round of industrial revolution is deepening. The author continues to argue that, the digitalization and intellectualization of manufacturing industries can be viewed as key technologies for the new round of industrial revolution. On the one hand, they are the generic enabling technologies for the realization of mechanical products innovation, developing mechanical products towards "NC generation" and "intelligent generation", boosting the functions, overall performance as well as market competitiveness of them fundamentally. On the other hand, they are the generic enabling technologies for the manufacturing technology innovation, developing manufacturing industries towards integrated manufacturing system featuring digitization and intellectualization, promoting the products design, manufacturing as well as management levels comprehensively, with the manufacturing service industry being developed at the same time, thus reforming the production mode and industrial pattern & structure of manufacturing industries greatly. Last but not least, the author believes that, the next twenty years can be regarded as a period characterized by precious opportunities of strategic importance, for China to transform from being a "big nation in manufacturing" to a "powerful nation in manufacturing". China's manufacturing industries should and are most likely to make leaping progress during this time span, especially to make strategic breakthroughs in "digitization and intellectualization of manufacturing industries", thus making historical contributions for the modernization of China. Source


Zhang D.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Fan D.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Fan D.,Chinese Academy of Engineering
Future Oncology | Year: 2010

Gastric cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of the major treatment options for advanced gastric cancer. The efficacy of chemotherapy for gastric cancer is poor due to insensitivity and the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). Gastric cancer MDR involves a large number of molecules and complex mechanisms. Classical drug-resistant molecules, such as P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 and MRP1/ABCC1, have been found to play important roles in mediating MDR in some gastric cancers. In recent years, new molecules and mechanisms have been found to be associated with the development of gastric cancer MDR and might provide new targets for tackling gastric cancer MDR. Combined use of molecularly targeted therapy with chemotherapy may offer improved outcomes for gastric cancer patients and might provide new threads of hope for gastric cancer treatment. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

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