Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering

Beijing, China

Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering

Beijing, China

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Song C.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Tian Y.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Luo J.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Qi Y.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2015

Biogas residue is a kind of high quality medium, being with comprehensive nutrition and rich in organic matter. In order to select new type of non-soil culture substrate, in this paper, the experiment for single factor randomized block design was carried out to study the effects of the mass fraction of biogas residue on physicochemical properties of compound organic substrate, growth characteristics of seedlings and grass turf traits of Festuca Arundinacea. In this experiment, biogas residue was used as raw material to compound organic substrate to plant tall fescue turf. The results were as follows: 1) For the T60 matrix (volume fraction of biogas residue was 60%), the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and organic matter content were the highest, and more than the other 3 matrices, which were CK, T30 and T90 (volume fractions of biogas residue were zero, 30% and 90%, respectively); with the increase of mass fraction of biogas residue in compound organic substrate, pH value of the compound matrix decreased significantly, both dry and wet bulk density decreased, both infiltration rate and total porosity increased, water retention increased, and this amelioration effect of biogas residue decreased with the increasing of mass fraction of biogas residue; 2) All 3 compound organic substrates had significant promoting effect on the seedling growth of F. Arundinacea. The seedling number per unit area growing on T90 substrate was 22242, 30616, and 31990 for the 10th, 20th, and 40th day after germination, which was increased by 54.77%, 92.01% and 91.09%, respectively, compared with CK. For the 10th day after germination, seedling height on T90 substrate was the highest, 86.36% higher than that on CK substrate. For the 20th day after germination, seedling heights on T60 and T90 substrate were the same, which were both 8 cm, 83.10% higher than that of seedling with CK substrate. In the 40th day after germination, seedling heights with T60 and T90 substrate were both 10 cm, 85.71% higher than that of seedling with CK substrate. Seedling leaf width on T90 substrate was respectively 1.34, 1.81 and 1.87cm for the 10th, 20th and 40th day after germination, and it respectively increased by 50.56%, 67.59% and 94.79% compared with that of seedling on CK substrate. From the point of view of seedling growth, both T60 and T90 substrate were suitable for the cultivation of tall fescue turf; 3) For the 10th day after germination, turf coverage on 3 compound organic substrates was higher than that of CK substrate; for the 20th and 40th day after germination, turf coverages with T60 substrate were respectively 81% and 100%, which were the highest and increased by 13.47% and 53.85% respectively compared with that of the CK substrate; the turf color and uniformity with T60 substrate was higher than that of the CK substrate; 4) For the 40th day after germination, total biomass, aboveground and underground biomass and root thickness of turf under T60 substrate were significantly greater than the other 3 substrates; root shoot ratio of turf was 3.94 on T60 substrate, which was only 28.10%, 14.53% and 7.94% of that under CK, T30 and T90 substrate, respectively. T60 substrate significantly changed the distribution of aboveground and underground biomass pattern of F. Arundinacea, and significantly promoted the biomass allocation to the aboveground. Therefore, T60 substrate was the most suitable compound organic substrate for the establishment of tall fescue turf. ©, 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.


Liu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Wang Q.,Shenyang University | Qian F.,Shenyang University | Feng R.,Shenyang University | Liu H.,Shenyang University
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2010

The basic prices of agricultural land appraisal to establish a complete set of agricultural land price system and smoothly carry out land assets, such as reasonable allocation of land consolidation rural land management has the extremely vital significance. The text is a research about the basic prices appraisal of agricultural land in Lingyuan city, Liaoning province. Based on the result of the agricultural land classifying, a grey model of the predicting about the agriculture land net-income and a basic regression model was set up. Furthermore, these two models were applied into evaluating and analyzing the basic prices of the agriculture land, combining with the income returning process. Both grey model and regression model for the basic prices of the agricultural land have scientific foundation. The results showed that compared with regression model, grey model was more efficient to reduce influence of the variation of net-come in different years, which could be greatly varied among different land uses and in different geographical conditions, on the basic prices. So grey model has more advantages in the basic prices of agricultural land appraisal.


Luo J.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Luo J.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Zhang Y.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Chen L.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | And 4 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013

Due to the dense materials-hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin which were difficult to degrade in the crop straws, the anaerobic decomposition couldn't decompose and utilize the crop straw quickly and efficiently. Appropriate pretreatments were needed to promote the efficiency of crop straw digestion. Lots of studies at home and abroad had shown that alkali pretreatment of crop straw had many advantages, such as having short processing time, good gas production and so on. To improve the gas production ability meanwhile reduce costs and security risks, relatively low cost and high security CaO was chosen as the pretreating agent in this study. Corn straws were pretreated by three different weight percentages (3%, 5% and 7%) of CaO retting for three different time (three days, five days and seven days) in an incubator chamber at (25±1)°C, and the effects with different conditions of CaO pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of corn straws for variation of components and anaerobic digestion performance (under temperature of (38±2)°C) were studied. A control set with untreated corn straws was also done to compare the difference with the treated ones. The experiments were set up in triplicate. The results showed that having been pretreated by CaO, the total content of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin in corn straws was decreased, and the daily gas production and cumulative gas production got a substantial increase compared with the control. In addition, the starting time and digestion time was shortened significantly. The cellulose degradation effect of 5% and 3% of CaO with 3 days and 5% of CaO with 7 days were better in these nine pretreatments, and the degradation rates were 60.67%, 44.12% and 39.28%, respectively. The cumulative biogas production of 5% and 3% of CaO with 3 days were higher than others, and their unit dry mass gas production were 381.87mL/g and 369.00mL/g, which were 136.85% and 128.91% higher than the control. The digestion time of 80%of maximum gas production of all the treated groups was shortened by 3 to 10 days compared with the control. Most of the treated groups had significantly improved the TS and VS removal efficiency. The TS removal rates of 5% and 3% of CaO with 3 days and 3% of CaO with 5 days were 66.45%, 64.58% and 61.37%, respectively. The VS removal rates of 5% of CaO with 5 days and 3% and 5% of CaO with 3 days were improved by 10.20%, 7.95% and 7.18%, respectively. Taking daily biogas production, cumulative biogas production, anaerobic digestion time and the TS and VS removal rate into account, the weight percentage 3% of CaO with 3 days pretreatment was the best, compared with the control. The cumulative biogas production of this best treatment increased by 136.85%, and the fermentation time was shortened by 5 days. Meanwhile, the removal rates of TS increased by 21.72% and the removal rates of VS increased by 7.18%. Therefore, the weight percentage 3% of CaO with 3 days pretreatment exhibited the best effect in all of the cases, and it improved the biogas production rate and the biogas production efficiency of anaerobic digestion of corn straws effectively.


Dong B.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Dong B.,Rural Energy and Environmental Agency | Zhao L.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Song C.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013

Studies on the spatial heterogeneity of organic matter, organic acids, and biogas production play a key role in improving the efficiency of biogas production during solid-state anaerobic digestion. In this paper, based on the mixed materials of pig manure and straw inoculated with activated sludge, mesophilic digestion (37°C) in the laboratory was designed and conducted over a period of forty-six days in order to understand the spatial heterogeneity dynamics of organic matter, organic acid, and biogas production rates along with the depth of the fermentation materials. In this experiment, organic material, organic acids, and gas production rates from different reactor depths were monitored during a solid-state anaerobic digestion process, and the vertical dynamics of the heterogeneous environment were analyzed. The following results were obtained. 1) During a solid anaerobic fermentation process, both TS and VS have obvious longitudinal variation; that is, the mass fractions of total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) increase with increasing height of the fermentation material (HFM) from the reactor bottom. Closer to the top of the fermentation material, longitudinal heterogeneity increased, whereas the concentration of TS and VS decreased more quickly. TS and VS of fermentation material in the top layer were highest and reached 17.41% and 12.16%, respectively. However, TS and VS in the E layer were lowest, reaching 6.72% and 4.30%, which differend little from the TS and VS of fermentation materials in the F layer. Furthermore, the TS and VS contents in the A layer were 2.59-fold and 2.83-fold greater than those in the E layer. 2) During the solid anaerobic fermentation process, low weight molecule organic acids also have significant longitudinal variation; that is, the mass fractions of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and valeric acid increase with increasing HFM from reactor bottom. Closer to the top of the fermentation material, longitudinal heterogeneity increased, whereas the concentration of these short-chain organic acids decreased more quickly. The mass fraction of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and valeric acid of the fermentation material in the A layer increased 17.08, 30.07, 62.79, and 54.54 times, respectively, those of F layer, and increased 1.11, 1.28, 1.29 and 1.03 times those of E layer. 3) The gas-production rate and cumulative gas production per unit of VS increased with the HFM from reactor bottom; the bottom had the lowest values but top had the highest values. The cumulative gas production per unit of VS from the A layer (1.36 L/g) was the maximum within the column, as compared to the minimum cumulative gas production per unit of VS from the E layer (0.36 L/g), a reduction of 74%. 4) The correlation was markedly positive among main parameters, such as the cumulative gas production, the cumulative gas production per unit of VS, HFM, TS, VS, and organic acid content. Furthermore, a power function curve was fit between cumulative gas production and HFM, and the adjusted R square (0.9754) was statistically significant. All results showed that a core anaerobic zone existed in the reactor during the solid-state anaerobic digestion process, and a significant power function relationship existed between the cumulative gas production and HFM. Therefore, it suggested that locating the core anaerobic zone and monitoring it in the actual project can improve the efficiency of the entire anaerobic digestion system.


Ma H.,National Earthquake Infrastructure Service | Li X.,National Earthquake Infrastructure Service | Hu D.-Y.,Capital Normal University | Zhao H.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering
2014 The 3rd International Conference on Agro-Geoinformatics, Agro-Geoinformatics 2014 | Year: 2014

Farming-pastoral zone is one of typical ecological transition zone in China. To monitor and evaluate the ecological security in farming-pastoral zone is of great significance for regional environmental protection and rational utilization. This paper chooses Guyuan County as the research area, which is in typical farming-pastoral zone area named Bashang in north China. Then, in the administrative divisions of villages and towns, a comprehensive evaluation index of ecological security at small scale in Guyuan County is set up through the following steps. Firstly, based on the 'Pressure - State - Response' (PSR) framework and according to the relationship between each component object, a multi-level evaluation index system is constructed. Then, TM remote sensing images, digital elevation data and statistical data are comprehensive utilized to calculate every evaluation index. Next, index weight is obtained by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Results show that the range of comprehensive evaluation index of ecological security in Guyuan County was 0.28-0.64. At most areas, the ecological security was at the 'warning' level. At the minority areas, the ecological security even reaches 'dangerous' level, such as Huanggaizhuo and Gaoshanbao. The worst town is Guyuan pasture. This study analyzed the ecological security in the region, provided a decision-making basis for the ecological protection. © 2014 IEEE.


Song C.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Qu L.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Ma K.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Fu B.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Chen L.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play key roles in ecological restoration and ecological reconstruction of degraded ecosystems in arid and semi-arid lands. Based on the previous results of limiting soil moisture and soil available phosphorus (AP) deficit in the arid valley of Mingjiang River, which is one of the main branches of Yangtze River and located in the north of the Hengduan Mountain Systems, a full factorial and completely random pot experiment in a greenhouse was designed and conducted to understand the influence of two AM fungi (Glomus mosseae and Glomus coronatum) on dynamics of Bauhinia faberi seedling growth. We calculated biomass production and its partitioning, inoculation rate, and mycorrhizal growth response (MGR) across one growth season with two soil AP concentration (P1: 6.0 and P2: 24.0 mg P/ kg soil). The following results were obtained: (1) Irrespective of both low and high soil AP concentration (6.0 mg/ kg and 24.0 mg P / kg soil), both AM fungi could well colonized root of B. faberi seedlings. Under two soil AP conditions, growth promotion effects on seedling root, leaf number and biomass production were significantly increased marked when inoculating B. faberi seedling roots with both AM fungi (G. mosseae or G. coronatum); (2) inoculation with G. mosseae or G. coronatum on seedling root significantly impacted on root biomass accumulation and its partitioning (P<0.05). However, soil AP did a little effect on biomass accumulation and its partitioning (P> 0.05), the coupling interaction between inoculated with AM fungi and soil AP was obvious (P <0.05) by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA); (3) The inoculation rate of G. mosseae ranged from 51% to 71% under low soil AP condition and ranged from 60% to 74% under high soil AP condition, the inoculation rate of G. coronatum did from 30% to 31% under low soil AP condition and from 35% to 58% under high soil AP condition. Therefore, seedling inoculated with G. mosseae had absolutely higher the root length, leaf number, total biomass, inoculation rate, and MGR than those of seedlings inoculated with G. coronatum. The result suggested that G. mosseae is the more appropriate host for B. faberi in poor arid environment; (4) MGR of G. mosseae and G. coronatum was marked increasing, Inoculation with AM fungi can decrease the limiting strengthen of soil AP. Moreover, the extent with age of seedlings (both 48 and 86 day) was apparently more stronger than those seedlings of 104 day. However, no significant higher of inoculation rates for both AM fungi under 6.0 and 24.0 mg P/ kg soil condition demonstrated that the impacts of soil AP on inoculation rate of AM fungi was weakly. The different abilities of both AM fungi (G. mosseae or G. coronatum) could improve growth on B. faberi seedling, which indicated that it is important and necessary to select beneficial AM fungi for vegetation restoration practice in multi-resource limiting regions.


Pei Z.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Zhang S.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Guo L.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | McNairn H.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Rice is the staple grain in China and accounts for about 42% of the nation's food production. Most of China's paddy rice production is located in the southern provinces of the country where cloud cover and frequent rain severely limit opportunities for optical satellite acquisitions. The small field sizes, typical of paddy rice, also challenge the exploitation of satellite data for monitoring rice production. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors are able to successfully acquire data under most atmospheric conditions, and the change in backscatter, from rice emergence through to crop maturity and harvest, permits the detection of rice fields using SAR imagery. Recently launched sensors, including TerraSAR-X, can provide data at spatial resolutions suitable for rice monitoring in southern China. The objective of this study was to assess TerraSAR-X imagery for identification of late rice and to develop a change detection methodology to quantify changes in rice acreages. The lowlands of the Xuwen study site in Guangdong Province are dominated by rice paddies. Results of this analysis revealed that the TerraSAR-X data were able to identify rice paddies with a 96% accuracy and acreage change to an accuracy of 99%. © 2011 CASI.


Gao X.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Zhao L.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Dong B.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Chen L.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2011

To study the influence of separated two-phase anaerobic fermentation leachate recirculation on anaerobic process, the equipment was developed to simulate the leachate recirculation between the two phases. The gas production performance with leachate recirculation under two reflux modes of spray and immersion was comparative analyzed, including leachate pH, VFA (volatile fatty acids) and changes in composition and their influences on gas production. And the TS gas production per unit material under the two reflux modes was calculated. The, test results showed that in the separated two-phase anaerobic fermentation process, the system had better gas production performance and stability under immersion mode of leachate recirculation, its cumulative gas production was two times than that with spray mode, the TS gas production per unit material mass was up to 217.88 mL/g.


Song C.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Zhang Y.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Liu D.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Li X.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering | Xu Z.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2010

In order to evaluate the health risk of different treatments for roots and straws of crops in Tianjin wasterwater irrigation areas, authors estimated contents and distribution patterns of Cd, As, Pb, Cu, Zn in crops respectively. The contents of heavy metals in roots were more than those in stems. Health risks caused by returning field, burning and returning field plus burning of crops roots and straws were evaluated by using the environmental health risk assessment model. The contents of heavy metals in roots were higher than those of straw. For returning filed, the combined carcinogenic hazard index for child and adult were 6.08 × 10-9 and 1.95 × 10-8, respectively, and the combined noncarcinogenic hazard index were 1.01 × 10-5 and 6.45 × 10-6, respectively. It resulted negligible health risk for people. However, for burn treatment, the combined carcinogenic hazard index for child and adult were 2.89 × 10-8 and 4.67 × 10-8, respectively, and the combined noncarcinogenic hazard index were 1.76 × 10-3 and 9.43 × 10-4, respectively. The combined carcinogenic hazard index for child and adult were 2.05 × 10-8 and 4.28 × 10-8, respectively, and the combined noncarcinogenic hazard index were 8.88 × 10-4 and 3.78 × 10-4, respectively for returning filed plus burning. The noncarcinogenic hazard was unacceptable for burning or returning field plus burning. Considering large amount of heavy metals in crop straws, the top-priority treatment are suggested by returning field, then carefully considered by burning. These results made scientific suggestions for agricultural solid waste management.


Tian Y.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2012

In order to determine the discharge of livestock poultry, the productive potentials of biogas and the distribution of scale farms in China, this paper used the statistical data of 2009 to establish the estimation of annually discharge of livestock poultry and parameters of estimation in China, and estimated main annually discharge of livestock poultry, the productive potentials of biogas and the reduction potentials of greenhouse gases. The result showed that the total manure emission of the large-scale farm was 837 million tons in 2009, annual biogas production potential is about 47.21 billion m 3 and the reduction potential is 190 million tons CO 2. Pigs, cows and beef cattle farming are the main manure sources in China, and manure emission mainly distribute in north-east area, north area and north-west area. The results can provide basis for decision making to control pollution of the large-scale farm.

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