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Cheng G.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2015

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate numerous biological processes by targeting a broad set of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNAs have been detected in remarkably stable forms in many types of body fluids. A comparison between cancer patients and healthy individuals has clearly shown that certain types of circulating miRNAs are associated with cancer initiation and progression. Research on miRNA-based biomarkers has witnessed phenomenal growth, owing to the non-invasive nature of miRNA-based screening assays and their sensitivity and specificity in detecting cancers. Consequently, a considerable effort has been devoted to identify suitable miRNAs for cancer diagnosis and also decode the information carried by circulating miRNAs. This review highlights the current studies that focus on the identification of circulating miRNA-based diagnostic and prognostic markers, for the most prevalent types of cancer. Additionally, the review also provides an insight into the putative functions of miRNAs, and attempts to delineate the mechanisms through which they are released into the bloodstream. Moreover, methodologies and strategies for identification of circulating miRNAs in cancers are summarized. Finally, potential strategies for circulating miRNA-based cancer therapies are proposed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

For a comprehensive survey of the structure and dynamics of the Dutch Phytophthora infestans population, 652 P. infestans isolates were collected from commercial potato fields in the Netherlands during the 10-year period 2000-2009. Genotyping was performed using 12 highly informative microsatellite markers and mitochondrial haplotypes. In addition, for each isolate, the mating type was determined. STRUCTURE analysis grouped the 322 identified genotypes in three clusters. Cluster 1 consists of a single clonal lineage NL-001, known as "Blue_13"; all isolates in this cluster have the A2 mating type and the Ia mitochondrial haplotype. Clusters 2 and 3 display a more elaborate substructure containing many unique genotypes. In Cluster 3, several distinct clonal lineages were also identified. This survey witnesses that the Dutch population underwent dramatic changes in the 10 years under study. The most notable change was the emergence and spread of A2 mating type strain NL-001 (or "Blue_13"). The results emphasize the importance of the sexual cycle in generating genetic diversity and the importance of the asexual cycle as the propagation and dispersal mechanism for successful genotypes. Isolates were also screened for absence of the Avrblb1/ipiO class I gene, which is indicative for virulence on Rpi-blb1. This is also the first report of Rpi-blb1 breakers in the Netherlands. Superimposing the virulence screening on the SSR genetic backbone indicates that lack the Avrblb1/ipiO class I gene only occurred in sexual progeny. So far, the asexual spread of the virulent isolates identified has been limited. Source

Schistosomiasis is a tropical, parasitic disease affecting humans and several animal species. The aim of this study was to identify proteins involved in the growth and survival of the parasitic forms inside a host. Schistosomula of Schistosoma japonicum were isolated from three different hosts: the susceptible BALB/c mice; the Wistar rats, which have a considerably lower susceptibility; and the resistant reed vole, Microtus fortis. Soluble proteins of the schistosomula collected from the above three hosts 10 days postinfection were subjected to two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Comparative proteomic analyses revealed that 39, 21, and 25 protein spots were significantly differentially expressed between schistosomula from mice and rats, mice and reed voles, or rats and reed voles, respectively (ANCOVA, p < 0.05). Further, the protein spots were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the differentially expressed proteins were essentially those involved in the metabolism of proteins, ribonucleotides, or carbohydrates, or in stress response or cellular movement. This study represents the first attempt at profiling S. japonicum living in different states and provides a basis for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in the development and survival of S. japonicum in different host environments. Source

Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Date: 2014-11-06

This invention is involved in the field of pharmaceutical technology. It is related to a triazine compound for resisting coccidiosis in chickens, its preparation method and application. This compound has the structure below. The invented drug has good efficacy, low toxicity and is suitable for treating animal coccidiosis

Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Date: 2010-06-24

A method for cultivating a transgenic animal with an increased expression amount of porcine growth hormone is provided. Additionally, a method for cultivating a transgenic embryo, which introduces a recombinant expression vector of 1) TRE-GH or 2) TET-ON into a target embryo to obtain a transgenic embryo with a higher expression amount of porcine growth hormone than a target embryo without introduction is provided. A transgenic animal can be obtained by transplanting the embryo into an animal. The experiments demonstrate that growth hormone (GH) is sharply increased in blood of transgenic pigs after adding DOX.

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