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Tian Y.,Transportation Institute | Tian Y.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Li X.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Ma G.,Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning of the State Environmental Protection Administration | Zhang Y.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2011

With the development of industrialization and urbanization, the opportunity cost of farm labor is increasing, which will affect the farmer's decision. Using statistic and survey data and taking mountain area of southern Ningxia as an example, based on farmer decision-making mechanism and framework of linear programming theory, an indigenous farm-household model was constructed to study the impacts of rising opportunity cost of farm labor on land use change. Results showed that under the condition of the labor market and food market function, with the rising of opportunity cost of farm labor, farm labor become one of the key factors that affected farm household's decision-making. Namely, the labors with the greatest comparative advantage would be allocated in wage employment, and the labors with comparative disadvantage such as old man or woman would be allocated in on-farm activities. Household should prefer to purchase subsistence goods through market and plant crops with higher labor productivity such as potato and watermelon et al. Some land, especially consolidated land was abandoned. The farm-household model could explain the making-decision behavior of household land use. Source


Xu Y.,Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning of the State Environmental Protection Administration | Zang H.-K.,Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning of the State Environmental Protection Administration
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2012

Considering the carbon tax policy, an energy and environmental systems planning model in Beijing was developed, which was useful to analyse the impacts of carbon tax policy on Beijing City's energy and environment systems. The results indicated that the supply amount of coal would cut to [921.7, 1000] tce in Beijing by 2020 year; on the contrary, the supply amount of natural gas and electricity would increase to [2000.7, 2089.3] and [1950.3, 2183.8] tce. Addition, the emission changes of CO2 and atmospheric pollutants (SO2, NOx and PM10) were also analyzed under carbon tax policy. The results showed that the reduction ratio of CO2 was [9.0, 11]% and, the synergistic reduction ratio of SO2, NOx and PM10 were [9.0, 11]%, [19, 31]% and [19, 20]%, respectively. Source


Ma G.,Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning of the State Environmental Protection Administration | Yu F.,Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning of the State Environmental Protection Administration | Cao D.,Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning of the State Environmental Protection Administration | Niu K.,Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning of the State Environmental Protection Administration
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2012

With the First National Pollution Source Census in 2007, this paper calculates the agricultural non-point source pollution emissions for all 31 provinces in mainland China. Based on the results, the emission situation during 2010 to 2030 for each province is predicted. Some conclusions are drawn as follows. In 2007, the total emission of agricultural non-point source pollution in China is 1057×10 4 t, within which COD emission is 825.9×10 4 t, TN 187.2×10 4 t, TP 21.6×10 4 t, and NH 4 +-N about 22.4×10 4 t. If more stringent pollution control efforts were not implemented, the pollution of agricultural non-point source would further exacerbate before 2020.Under high-emission scenario, COD emission of agricultural non-point source pollution may reach 1466.5×10 4 t, highlighting the importance of agricultural non-point source pollution. The emission of agricultural non-point source pollution has spatial differentiation and eastern coastal areas contribute larger proportion of the total emission. However, in the future, the spatial distribution of agricultural non-point source pollution emission may tend to be balanced. Source

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