Yang D.,China Waterborne Transport Research Institute |
Chin A.T.H.,National University of Singapore |
Chen S.,Shanghai Maritime University
Maritime Policy and Management | Year: 2014
The Chinese government has been exploring various paths to find a direction that better suits China's national conditions during the past 60 years. Meanwhile, a series of political and economic events and policy transformations have had different effects on the port industry. This article attempts to ascertain how these events and port policies have influenced Chinese port traffic through an empirical study on data covering 1952-2009. The findings suggest that foreign trade has been the prime driver of the throughput of Chinese ports. The increase in the ports' throughput has enabled an increase in domestic demand and the urgent need for further port investment. Chinese port throughput has been subject to multiple shocks. The Great Leap Forward1 is found to have had the largest, but only a short-term impact. China's accession to the World Trade Organization, however, led to a longer and exclusive effect on ports, with little observed effect on the other variables. The reform of port governance is shown to have had a more lasting positive effect on port throughput than physical investment. However, these latter effects are minor, the economic and political factors remain the primary driving factors of port throughput. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Xu S.B.,China Waterborne Transport Research Institute
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014
After 9/11, container transport security and efficiency gain more and more concern, the secure and smart container concept is put forth by the USA for national security firstly. Based on the questionnaire survey analysis, this paper puts forth the exact concept and function of the secure and smart container, analyzes related key technology and elaborates detail technical solution based on The Internet of things how to make the common container become the secure and smart container. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
Li J.,Tsinghua University |
Zhou Y.-F.,China Waterborne Transport Research Institute
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2015
The manufacturing processes in chip industries are complex, and many kinds of raw materials and solvents of different nature are used, most of which are highly toxic and dangerous. During the machine preventive maintenance period, these toxic and harmful substances will escape from the sealed reaction chamber to the clean workshop environment and endanger the health of the workers on-site, resulting in occupational diseases. From the perspective of prevention, the spread and prediction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) that escaped from the metal-etching chamber during maintenance were studied in this article. The computational fluid dynamics technology was used for a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the indoor air velocity field and the HCl concentration field, and the simulation results were then compared with the on-site monitoring data to verify the correctness and feasibility. The occupational hazards and control measures were analyzed based on the numerical simulation, and the optimal control measure was obtained. In this article, using the method of ambient air to analyze the occupational exposure can provide a new idea to the field of occupational health research in the integrated circuit industry and had theoretical and practical significance. © The Author(s) 2012.
Cai O.C.,China Waterborne Transport Research Institute
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014
As nanotechnologies become more widely used, titania nanoparticles are being released to the subsurface environment via wastewater sludge applications. Titania nanoparticles are not only toxic to organisms in the environment, but recent studies revealed that they may also serve as carriers of hydrophobic organic contaminants and affect their fate and distribution in the subsurface environment. The mobility of titania nanoparticles varies depending on nanoparticle morphology characteristics, pH and the ionic strength of solutions, flow velocity, nanoparticle concentration, and the presence of surfactant or natural organic matter. Analogous to findings for natural and engineered carbonaceous nanoparticles, titania nanoparticles may enhance the transport of hydrophobic organic contaminants in porous media. However, to prove this hypothesis, further research is necessary. Thus experiments examining the impacts of titania nanoparticle on the hydrophobic organic matter transport in porous media were designed, which consist of three different sets of column experiments. These experimental sets will investigate the effects of the presence of titania nanoparticles, the size of nanoparticles and the organic carbon content in soil, respectively. Due to the estimation of the potential for the titania nanoparticles to facilitate organic contaminant transport, the experiment results are expected as: (a) the presence of titania nanoparticles will enhance the organic contaminant transport in porous media; (b) smaller nanoparticles will adsorb more organic contaminants and enhance their transport as the result of the increasing specific surface area; (c) soil containing higher organic matter content will compete for the adsorption of organic contaminants and retard their facilitated transport by titania nanoparticles. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
Weng J.,Shanghai Maritime University |
Weng J.,Beijing Jiaotong University |
Yang D.,China Waterborne Transport Research Institute
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2014
Shipping movements are operated in a complex and high-risk environment. Fatal shipping accidents are the nightmares of seafarers. With ten years' worldwide ship accident data, this study develops a binary logistic regression model and a zero-truncated binomial regression model to predict the probability of fatal shipping accidents and corresponding mortalities. The model results show that both the probability of fatal accidents and mortalities are greater for collision, fire/explosion, contact, grounding, sinking accidents occurred in adverse weather conditions and darkness conditions. Sinking has the largest effects on the increment of fatal accident probability and mortalities. The results also show that the bigger number of mortalities is associated with shipping accidents occurred far away from the coastal area/harbor/port. In addition, cruise ships are found to have more mortalities than non-cruise ships. The results of this study are beneficial for policy-makers in proposing efficient strategies to prevent fatal shipping accidents. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.