Beijing, China

The China University of Geoscience is a key national university directly under the administration of the Education Ministry of the People's Republic of China. It consists of three campuses, one is located in Haidian District in Beijing, and the second one is located in Wuhan, the capital of Central China's Hubei Province, the third one is in Baoding.It is regarded as a top university specialized in geoscience in China and exerts considerable influence within the Chinese mining and oil industry. Its notable alumni include Wen Jiabao, the Premier of China's State Council, who attended the Beijing Campus when it was known as the Beijing Institute of Geology . The motto "Being austere and simple, keeping on practice and acting for truth." is from him. Wikipedia.

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China University of Geosciences | Date: 2016-11-09

The present disclosure provides a prestack separating method for a seismic wave, including: receiving P-wave, S1-wave and S2-wave of the seismic wave, wherein the P-wave, S1-wave and S2-wave are reflected from different points; projecting the P-wave, S1-wave and S2-wave into a Z-R-T coordinate system, so as to generate a projection matrix, wherein Z is a vertical component, R is a component of a source-to-receiver azimuth and T is a component orthogonal to the R component; forming vectors of the P-wave, S1-wave and S2-wave as a composite vector; transforming the composite vector to an anisotropic wave vector matrix according to base vectors on the vector directions of the P-wave, S1-wave and S2-wave; and performing a rotation transformation of an affine coordinate system on the anisotropic wave vector matrix to generate a wave separation matrix, thereby solving a problem of error prediction result of fracture parameters caused by the mode leakage phenomenon.

Cheng Q.,China University of Geosciences
Gondwana Research | Year: 2017

Recently compiled global databases of igneous and detrital zircon U-Pb ages have been integrated with other types of isotope data (e.g., neodymium, hafnium, and oxygen) to characterize the episodic growth of the continental crust and the development of supercontinents. However, to what extent do the age peaks reflect the rate of continent crust growth or the differential preservation due to supercontinent settings is a long-standing question. Instead of analyzing amplitudes and periodicity of the age series, here, the analysis focuses on shapes of the individual age peaks described by a power law model for measuring the scale invariant fractality and singularity of time-series records. The results indicate that zircon age distributions around peaks follow power law distribution, regardless of the bin-size used to measure the age distribution. Based on the commonly accepted mechanisms (phase transition, self-organized criticality and multiplicative cascade processes) for generation of power law distributions one can relate the nonlinearity of the age peaks to short spurts of accelerated magmatic activities due to “avalanches” (superplumes, slab breakoff etc.) occurred during episodic convection of the mantle. The exponents of the power law age distributions estimated from the age peaks can be used as an index to quantify the intensity of a singularity. The values of exponents calculated at all major age peaks from five global databases exhibit an episodic nature, with a mean duration of approximately 600–800 Myr. Both intensity of the zircon episodes and their duration for the interval from 3 Ga to 0.5 Ga depict a descending trend, which may signify mantle cooling. © 2017 International Association for Gondwana Research

Xiao W.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Xiao W.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Santosh M.,China University of Geosciences | Santosh M.,Kochi University
Gondwana Research | Year: 2014

The architecture of accretionary orogens is a key to understand continental growth. Here we present an overview of the orogenic components and their amalgamation in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The CAOB records the convergence and interactions among various types of orogenic components including the Japan-type, Mariana-type, and Alaska-Aleutian-type arc systems, as well as the active marginal sequences of the Siberia Craton, which incorporated wide accretionary complexes and accreted arcs and terranes. During construction of the CAOB, the Kazakhstan arc chain was characterized by multiple subduction, whereas the northern fringe of the Tarim Craton remained mostly as a passive margin. The multiple convergence and accretions among these various orogenic components generated huge orogenic collages in the late Paleozoic and even in the early Triassic, involving parallel amalgamation, circum-microcontinent amalgamation and oroclinal bending. The preservation of trapped basins played a significant role in orogenesis with some parts of the oceanic plate being subducted and others behaving as rigid units. The orogenesis in the CAOB was long-lived, lasting for more than 800. m.y., involving multiple-subduction and long, continuous accretion, and featuring the complexity of accretionary orogenesis and continent growth. © 2014 International Association for Gondwana Research.

Yang Q.-Y.,China University of Geosciences | Santosh M.,China University of Geosciences
Ore Geology Reviews | Year: 2015

The gold deposits of the Jiaodong Peninsula in the eastern part of the North China Craton constitute one of the richest gold reserves in the world and also define a unique class of gold mineralization. Previous studies correlated the gold mineralization in Jiaodong to Mesozoic magmatic intrusives, particularly granitoids derived from mixed sources of reworked Paleoproterozoic basement rocks, or Early Cretaceous dykes. Here we evaluate the geochemical characteristics of the major magmatic suites in the region as well as the timings of the magma pulses with respect to that of gold metallogeny. It is revealed that the peak of gold mineralization at ca. 120-125. Ma coincides with the major volcanic activity in Jiaodong as represented by the extrusion of basaltic trachyandesites. The magma flare-up was accompanied by a transient fluid influx through an enriched and metasomatised mantle with gold and sulfur predominantly scavenged from subducted sediments over the downgoing paleo-Pacific Plate. The remarkable structural control of the gold-bearing quartz veins and the proximity of the larger gold deposits in Jiaodong to the major Tan-Lu Fault clearly indicate that fluids channeled along structural pathways were the major contributor to the gold mineralization in the area. The asthenospheric upwelling and decompression melting triggered extensive magmatism and crustal recycling aided by the development of deep extensional fractures possibly associated with major stress field changes during plate re-orientation in the Early Cretaceous. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Deng J.,China University of Geosciences | Wang Q.,China University of Geosciences
Gondwana Research | Year: 2016

We present a review of major gold mineralization events in China and a summary of metallogenic provinces, deposit types, metallogenic epochs and tectonic settings. Over 200 investigated gold deposits are grouped into 16 Au-metallogenic provinces within five tectonic units such as the Central Asian orogenic belt comprising provinces of Northeast China and Tianshan-Altay; North China Craton comprising the northern margin, Jiaodong, and Xiaoqinling; the Qinling-Qilian-Kunlun orogenic belt consisting of the West Qingling, North Qilian, and East Kunlun; the Tibet and Sanjiang orogenic belts consisting of Lhasa, Garzê-Litang, Ailaoshan, and Daduhe-Jinpingshan; and the South China block comprising Youjiang basin, Jiangnan orogenic belt, Middle and Lower Yangtze River, and SE coast. The gold deposits are classified as orogenic, Jiaodong-, porphyry-skarn, Carlin-like, and epithermal-types, among which the first three types are dominant.The orogenic gold deposits formed in various tectonic settings related to oceanic subduction and subsequent crustal extension in the Qinling-Qilian-Kunlun, Tianshan-Altay, northern margin of North China Craton, and Xiaoqinling, and related to the Eocene-Miocene continental collision in the Tibet and Sanjiang orogenic belts. The tectonic periods such as from slab subduction to block amalgamation, from continental soft to hard collision, from intracontinental compression to shearing or extension, are important for the formation of the orogenic gold deposits. The orogenic gold deposits are the products of metamorphic fluids released during regional metamorphism associated with oceanic subduction or continental collision, or related to magma emplacement and associated hydrothermal activity during lithospheric extension after ocean closure. The Jiaodong-type, clustered around Jiaodong, Xiaoqinling, and the northern margin of the North China Craton, is characterized by the involvement of mantle-derived fluids and a temporal link to the remote subduction of the Pacific oceanic plate concomitant with the episodic destruction of North China Craton. The Carlin-like gold metallogenesis is related to the activity of connate fluid, metamorphic fluid, and meteoric water in different degrees in the Youjiang basin and West Qinling; the former Au province is temporally related to the remote subduction of the Tethyan oceanic plate and the later formed in a syn-collision setting. Porphyry-skarn Au deposits are distributed in the Tianshan-Altay, the Middle and Lower Yangtze River region, and Tibet and Sanjiang orogenic belts in both subduction and continental collision settings. The magma for the porphyry-skarn Au deposits commonly formed by melting of a thickened juvenile crust. The epithermal Au deposits, dominated by the low-sulfidation type, plus a few high-sulfidation ones, were produced during the Carboniferous oceaic plate subduction in Tianshan-Altay, during Early Cretaceous and Quaternary oceanic plate subduction in SEt coast of South China Block, and during the Pliocene continental collision in Tibet. The available data of different isotopic systems, especially fluid D-O isotopes and carbonate C-O systems, reveal that the isotopic compositions are largely overlapping for different genetic types and different for the same genetic type in different Au belts. The isotopic compositions are thus not good indicators of various genetic types of gold deposit, perhaps due to overprinting of post-ore alteration or the complex evolution of the fluids.Although gold metallogeny in China was initiated in Cambrian and lasted until Cenozoic, it is mainly concentrated in four main periods. The first is Carboniferous when the Central Asian orogenic belt formed by welding of micro-continental blocks and arcs in Tianshan-Altay, generating a series of porphyry-epithermal-orogenic deposits. The second period is from Triassic to Early Jurassic when the current tectonic mainframe of China started to take shape. In central and southern China, the North China Craton, South China Block and Simao block were amalgamated after the closure of Paleo-Tethys Ocean in Triassic, forming orogenic and Carlin-like gold deposits. The third period is Early Cretaceous when the subduction of the Pacific oceanic plate to the east and that of Neo-Tethyan oceanic plate to the west were taking place. The subduction in eastern China produced the Jiaodong-type deposits in the North China Craton, the skarn-type deposits in the northern margin (Middle to lower reaches of Yangtze River) and the epithermal-type deposits in the southeastern margin in the South China Block. The subduction in western China produced the Carlin-like gold deposits in the Youjiang basin and orogenic ones in the Garzê-Litang orogenic belt. The Cenozoic is the last major phase, during which southwestern China experienced continental collision, generating orogenic and porphyry-skarn gold deposits in the Tibetan and Sanjiang orogenic belts. Due to the spatial overlap of the second and third periods in a single gold province, the Xiaoqinling, West Qinling, and northern margin of the North China Craton have two or more episodes of gold metallogeny. © 2015 International Association for Gondwana Research.

Nance R.D.,Ohio University | Murphy J.B.,St. Francis Xavier University | Santosh M.,China University of Geosciences | Santosh M.,Kochi University
Gondwana Research | Year: 2014

The recognition that Earth history has been punctuated by supercontinents, the assembly and breakup of which have profoundly influenced the evolution of the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere, is arguably the most important development in Earth Science since the advent of plate tectonics. But whereas the widespread recognition of the importance of supercontinents is quite recent, the concept of a supercontinent cycle is not new and advocacy of episodicity in tectonic processes predates plate tectonics. In order to give current deliberations on the supercontinent cycle some historical perspective, we trace the development of ideas concerning long-term episodicity in tectonic processes from early views on episodic orogeny and continental crust formation, such as those embodied in the chelogenic cycle, through the first realization that such episodicity was the manifestation of the cyclic assembly and breakup of supercontinents, to the surge in interest in supercontinent reconstructions. We then chronicle some of the key contributions that led to the cycle's widespread recognition and the rapidly expanding developments of the past ten years. © 2013 International Association for Gondwana Research.

Igneous rock textures reflect the cooling history of the parental magma. Combined with chemical data, they can provide physical and chemical information about the evolution of a magma body. The petrographic textures and chemical compositions of 21 coarse- and fine-grained granite samples along an ∼250 m horizontal outcrop of the Shanggusi granite porphyry are presented in this case study. The coarse-grained granite porphyry is an early intrusion, and the fine-grained granite dykes, mostly intruded into the granite porphyry, are later intrusions. The studied samples have nearly homogeneous major element bulk-rock and mineral compositions, but show large variations in their trace element compositions and textural characteristics. The trace element data suggest the influence of hydrous fluids (possibly enriched in CO. 2, F, and Cl) in the evolution of the plutonic body. Textural analysis of the coarse-grained granite porphyry indicates that the crystal size distribution (CSD) slopes, intercepts and total numbers of groundmass decrease from the center to the margin of the intrusion in contrast to the maximum diameter of the crystals (L. max) (average length of the four largest quartz crystals for each sample); however, most fine-grained samples and the groundmass of the coarse-grained samples show concave-down CSDs, indicating textural coarsening. Quartz CSDs in the coarse-grained samples are kinked, with a steep-sloped log-linear section representing small crystals (<1 mm) and a shallow-sloped log-linear section representing large crystals (>1 mm). These two crystal populations are interpreted as resulting from a shift in cooling regime. The straight CSDs of two fine-grained samples may be due to a different cooling history. In general, the spatial variation of the CSD patterns can be attributed to various degrees of overgrowth and mechanical compaction. The quartz phenocrysts in several coarse-grained samples exhibit a high degree of alignment, which may be the result of magmatic flow. By integrating the field geology, geochemistry and quantitative textural data from the horizontal profile of the Shanggusi granite porphyry, it is suggested that hydrous fluids at the top of the intrusion not only controlled the fractionation of elements but also affected its cooling history. Fluid migration-controlled undercooling can explain the solidification processes in the Shanggusi intrusion, and may also be prevalent in other fluid-rich shallow intrusions. Quantitative integration of textural and geochemical data for igneous rocks can contribute to our understanding of the relationships between physical and chemical processes in a magma system, and provide relatively comprehensive insights into the petrogenesis of granites. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Guo P.,China University of Geosciences | Santosh M.,China University of Geosciences | Li S.,China University of Geosciences
Gondwana Research | Year: 2013

The Shandong Province along the southeastern margin of the North China Craton is the largest gold producing region in China. The nature and extent of gold metallogeny between the Western Shandong (Luxi) and Eastern Shandong (Jiaodong) sectors display marked contrast. In this paper, we synthesize the information on mineralization and magmatism, S-Pb-H-O-C-He-Ar isotopic data of the ores and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data of the Mesozoic plutons from the Shandong region. Combined with the salient regional geophysical data, we discuss the geodynamic setting of the gold mineralization in Shandong. The age data converge to indicate that the peak of gold metallogeny in this region occurred at ca. 120. ±. 10. Ma. The mineralization in Luxi area shows links with sources in the Tongjing and Yinan complexes. The ore-forming materials in the Jiaodong area were derived from multiple sources and show clear evidence for crust-mantle mixing. The Moho depth on both sides of the Tan-Lu fault is broadly similar with only a minor variation across the Tan-Lu fault. The LAB (lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary) in the Jiaodong region is shallower than that in the Luxi area. The Tan-Lu fault is identified as a major corridor for asthenosphere upwelling. Geochemical features show that the mantle beneath the Luxi area is mainly of EM1 type, whereas the mantle in the eastern part, close to the Tan-Lu fault shows mixed EM1 and EM2 features. In contrast, the mantle beneath the Jiaodong area is mainly of EM2 type, suggesting the existence of more ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the Luxi area, in comparison to the extensively modified lithospheric mantle and asthenosphere beneath the Jiaodong area. The gold metallogeny in Shandong Province occurred in the geodynamic setting of lithospheric thinning. The differences in the character and intensity of gold mineralization between the Western and Eastern Shandong regions might be a reflection of the contrasting tectonic histories. The Western Shandong region preserves imprints of destruction through the Yangtze plate collision which probably marks the prelude for gold metallogeny in Jiaodong area. Subsequent magmatic input and cratonic destruction through Pacific plate subduction provided the settings for the later widespread mineralization in multiple phases. © 2013 International Association for Gondwana Research.

Safonova I.,RAS Institute of Geology and Mineralogy | Santosh M.,Kochi University | Santosh M.,China University of Geosciences
Gondwana Research | Year: 2014

The accretionary complexes of Central and East Asia (Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Mongolia, and China) and the Western Pacific (China, Japan, Russia) preserve valuable records of ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS). From a comprehensive synthesis of the nature of occurrence, geochemical characteristics and geochronological features of the oceanic island basalts (OIB) and ophiolite units in the complexes, we track extensive plume-related magmatism in the Paleo-Asian and Paleo-Pacific Oceans. We address the question of continuous versus episodic intraplate magmatism and its contribution to continental growth. An evaluation of the processes of subduction erosion and accretion illustrates continental growth at the active margins of the Siberian, Kazakhstan, Tarim and North China blocks, the collision of which led to the construction of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Most of the OIB-bearing OPS units of the CAOB and the Western Pacific formed in relation to two superplumes: the Asian (Late Neoproterozoic) and the Pacific (Cretaceous), with a continuing hot mantle upwelling in the Pacific region that contributes to the formation of modern OIBs. Our study provides further insights into the processes of continental construction because the accreted seamounts play an important role in the growth of convergent margins and enhance the accumulation of fore-arc sediments. © 2012 International Association for Gondwana Research.

China University of Geosciences | Date: 2013-04-23

The invention provides a quick method for detecting the genus of Bacillus in samples from oil reservoirs, which comprise: collecting samples from oil reservoirs; inactivating microbes except for spore-forming Bacillus in the samples through high temperature; collecting spores from the samples; incubating the collected spores in a medium, and stimulating to resurrect Bacillus under in situ temperatures of the oil reservoirs; etecting the resurrected Bacillus in the cultures using molecular biological techniques. The present invention provides an effective method to detect the genus of Bacillus in samples from oil reservoirs, which is conducive to the discovery of the functional Bacillus for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and to revealing the ecosystem of Bacillus in oil reservoirs.

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