China United Network Communications Group Co., Ltd. or China Unicom , is a Chinese state-owned telecommunications operator in the People's Republic of China. Compared to other mobile providers China Unicom is ranked as the world's third-biggest mobile provider. On January 7, 2009, China Unicom was awarded WCDMA license to expand its business to 3G telecommunication. Wikipedia.
Lu Y.,Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications |
Lu Y.,China Unicom |
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2012
We analyze the symbol error rate (SER) of selective decode-and-forward (DF) relaying for the practical case of independent but not necessarily identically distributed two-wave with diffuse power (TWDP) fading. We first derive new exact SER expressions with M-ary phase-shift keying and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation. We then derive tight upper bounds on the exact SER in closed form to avoid the numerical integration involved in the exact results. Furthermore, we derive concise yet valuable expressions for the asymptotic SER, which characterizes the system behavior in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime in terms of the diversity order and the coding gain. Based on the asymptotic SER, we confirm that TWDP fading parameters have no impact on the diversity order, but affect the coding gain. We also demonstrate that the contribution of the sourcedestination link to the SER is higher than that of the sourcerelay link or the relaydestination link. Our analytical results are valid for general operating scenarios with arbitrary average SNRs and distinct TWDP fading parameters in each hop. © 2002-2012 IEEE. Source
News Article | February 11, 2015
Tesla Motors Inc., the electric-car manufacturer led by billionaire Elon Musk, said a communications executive at its China operations has left the automaker after less than a year on the job. June Jin, vice president of communications, is no longer with the company, Tesla’s China spokesman Gary Tao said by telephone. He didn’t subsequently respond to further calls to his office or mobile phone seeking additional information. Jin didn’t answer calls to her mobile phone, nor immediately respond to an e-mail seeking comment. Jin’s departure follows the automaker’s China President Veronica Wu quitting in December. Musk last month said sales in China have fallen because of concerns consumers in the country have over charging its electric vehicles. Tesla, based in Palo Alto, California, started delivering cars in the world’s largest auto market last year. The automaker has nine stores and service centers in six Chinese cities and has tied up with companies including China Unicom and Soho China Ltd. to build charging stations. Tesla has 700 power points in 70 cities across China, making it the market with the biggest network after the U.S., the company has said. Before joining Tesla, Jin was the chief marketing officer at map software company Autonavi Holdings Ltd. She has also worked at Amazon.com Inc.
News Article | February 12, 2015
Emerging-market stocks advanced for the first time in five days after Russia and Ukraine reached a cease-fire agreement following all-night talks. Russian equities rose and Brazil’s real rebounded from a decade low. London-listed depositary shares of retailer PJSC Magnit jumped 5.6 percent as Russia’s dollar-denominated RTS Index advanced to a two-month high. The ruble ended little changed after strengthening as much as 1.2 percent. The Ibovespa snapped a two-day decline as a report showed that Brazil’s economy contracted less than analysts had forecast. China Unicom (Hong Kong) Ltd. and China Telecom Corp. climbed more than 2.9 percent amid speculation the two companies may merge. The MSCI Emerging Markets Index rose 1 percent to 971.19 in New York. The gauge had fallen 2.1 percent in four days as a standoff between Greece’s new government and its creditors over austerity conditions worsened. The measure has added 1.6 percent this year as the European Central Bank announced a $1.3 trillion stimulus plan and Brent crude rebounded more than 20 percent from the lowest price in almost six years. “The rally will continue as folks want to move on,” Frank Braddock, senior portfolio manager at JHS Capital Advisors, which oversees $4 billion in client assets, said by phone in New York. “We already had an agreement that didn’t work. The market, however, is numb to this and the rally in Russian stocks will hold for some time. The conflict in Ukraine has been going for so long that folks are tired of it, they want to look forward, not backward.” The premium investors demand to hold emerging-market debt rather than U.S. Treasuries dropped for the first time in four days, narrowing five basis points to 371, according to JPMorgan Chase & Co. indexes. The leaders of Russia, Ukraine, Germany and France agreed on steps to stop fighting between government troops and pro-Russian rebels in eastern Ukraine. The cease-fire will start Feb. 15 and reaffirms some commitments from a failed September bid to end the conflict. The collapse of previous cease-fires has stoked skepticism as to whether the new deal will hold. Months of fighting have killed more than 5,000 people, ravaged Ukraine’s economy and propelled Russia toward recession as U.S. and European sanctions exacerbated a collapse in the price of crude, the country’s major export. “Sanctions and the oil price are still the most important thing for the Russian economy,” Anders Svendsen, an analyst at Nordea Bank AB in Copenhagen, said by phone. “The ruble will continue to be under pressure for the next few months if oil prices stay at these levels.” The RTS gauge increased 3.6 percent, extending its advance from a low on Dec. 16 to 37 percent. Magnit, which reported financial results on Tuesday, rose for a sixth day inn London, the longest streak since July. The Ukrainian Equities Index surged 6.2 percent, the most since March 4, which was around the time Russia invaded Crimea. The ruble weakened to 65.27 per dollar. The Tadawul All Share Index rose 1.4 percent in Riyadh. Crude demand is improving amid signs prices are stabilizing, the state-run Saudi Press Agency reported, citing Saudi Arabia’s Oil Minister Ali al-Naimi. The Ibovespa surged 2.7 percent to a one-month high after the seasonally-adjusted economic activity index, a proxy for gross domestic product, fell less than forecast, bolstering the outlook for companies that depend on domestic demand. Hypermarcas SA, a maker of consumer goods, rose to a one-week high. The real climbed 1.6 percent a day after falling to its weakest level since October 2004. An increase in U.S. unemployment claims added to speculation that the Federal Reserve will refrain from raising interest rates. In China, the Shanghai Composite Index added 0.5 percent as shares of consumer-goods makers advanced on prospects for increased sales during the Chinese new year holiday. The rally in phone companies contributed to the gain, even though China Telecom said it isn’t aware of any plan to merge with China Unicom. All but one of the 10 industry groups on the emerging-markets index climbed, led by telecommunications and energy companies. The measure trades at 11.6 times the projected earnings of its members, data compiled by Bloomberg show. The MSCI World Index of developed-market stocks is valued at a multiple of 16.5.
News Article | March 3, 2015
China Unicom (Hong Kong) Ltd. fell the most in 16 months in New York, leading a retreat in Chinese mobile phone companies, after reporting 2014 earnings that fell short of analyst estimates. American depository receipts of China Unicom, the nation’s second-largest wireless carrier, slid 5.2 percent to $15.59, the steepest drop since October 2013. China Telecom Corp Ltd. declined 3.8 percent and China Mobile Ltd., the world’s biggest phone company by users, slumped for a third day. The Bloomberg index of the most-actively traded Chinese companies in the U.S. fell 0.7 percent. Sales at Hong Kong-based China Unicom decreased 3.5 percent to 284.7 billion yuan ($45.4 billion), missing the 286.7 billion yuan average of 29 analyst estimates compiled by Bloomberg. Chinese carriers are racing to provide faster downloads to the nation’s half-billion mobile Internet users in an economy that’s expanding at the slowest pace in 24 years. Unicom added the lowest-ever number of new users for its third-generation and fourth-generation high-speed mobile service in January. “China Unicom’s January subscriber number was very weak,” Jun Zhang, head of China Research at Rosenblatt Securities Inc., said by phone from San Francisco. “I think 2015 sales might grow slightly, but the current consensus may still be too high as 4G user growth might not be as good as expected. If the user base starts to decline, revenue will lack a long-term growth driver and the stock will not perform well.” China Unicom’s annual net income of 12.1 billion yuan also came in below estimates for 12.6 billion yuan. Unicom added just 884,000 users of its 3G and 4G service in January, compared with 2.5 million in July. The Chinese government may set a growth target of around 7 percent for gross domestic product in 2015, the official Xinhua News Agency reported, after the nation’s economy expanded by 7.4 percent in 2014. Consumer sentiment worsened for a second month in February, data from MNI and Westpac Bank showed last week. “With the mobile subscriber market saturating and the traditional voice business continuing to decline, the traditional subscriber-driven business growth is under pressure,” China Unicom Chairman Chang Xiaobing said in a statement Tuesday. Average revenue per user will remain “stable” compared with 2014, company President Lu Yimin said during an earnings call. China Unicom and China Telecom last week won government licenses for high-speed FDD-LTE service, more than a year after China Mobile received approval for its TD-LTE technology. “China Mobile has already deployed a majority of their 4G network in major cities, and by the end of last year they already built 700,000 4G base stations, so their network coverage and user base is already far ahead of China Telecom and Unicom,” Zhang said. ADRs of China Telecom fell to $62.43, while China Mobile slipped 3.9 percent to $64.75. The Bloomberg China-US Equity Index dropped to 111.03. The Deutsche X-trackers Harvest CSI 300 China A-Shares ETF, the largest U.S. exchange-traded fund that tracks mainland Chinese stocks, declined 2.7 percent to $35.75. The iShares China Large-Cap ETF, the largest Chinese ETF in the U.S., retreated 2.6 percent to $42.70.
News Article | April 23, 2016
The New York Times reported Thursday that Apple’s iBooks Store and iTunes Movies were shut down in China at the request of the government, just six months after opening. News of the closures come just as Apple prepares to announce earnings next week amid an iPhone market that's been softening as developed markets reach saturation points. iPhone sales in China have buoyed up Apple's financial results in recent quarters, and Apple is looking to China as its source of growth in future quarters. Chinese consumers and businesses spent $59 billion on Apple products during the company's last fiscal year, which ended in September 2015. Last October, Apple reported 99% year-over-year revenue growth in the country. CEO Tim Cook even said he thought Greater China would become would grow into "Apple’s top market in the world." Greater China, which includes Taiwan and Hong Kong, accounts for about 24% of Apple’s total revenue. Only the United States contributes more of Apple's sales today. Apple services like iBooks and iTunes Movies are revenue generators, but their main function, arguably, is to encourage people to buy Apple hardware. So the availability of services like e-books and online movies are crucial to the experience of using an iPhone or iPad. The absence of some services in China could seriously hurt device sales. As the New York Times report highlights, the Chinese government has been relatively friendly to Apple in recent years, while other U.S. companies doing business there have faced tough scrutiny. The iTunes Movies and iBooks Store closures also come just as the new low-priced ($399) iPhone SE is starting to make inroads in the Chinese market. The device had 3.4 million orders before launch, and is now selling enough to make local rivals like Xiaomi, Huawei, Vivo, and Oppo feel the pain. Complicating matters is the issue of encryption back doors. Apple is fighting against the U.S. government's desire for a skeleton key that can unlock encrypted data on users' iPhones. The Chinese government would like similar access to its citizens' iPhones; it has, within the past two years, asked Apple to supply the iOS source code, a request Apple refused. The Chinese government would like to see local phone makers like Xiaomi and Huawei challenge Apple. However, the Chinese government told Apple a year ago it intended to perform a "security audit" on Apple products. Spooked by the Snowden revelations in 2013, the Chinese government wanted to make sure that the U.S. government had not built any secret back doors in the devices through which it could spy on Chinese users. The Chinese reportedly did their audit, but nobody knows the results, or the actions they prompted. Chinese authorities made just over a thousand requests of Apple to provide encrypted data from user devices in the second half of last year. Apple complied in about two-thirds of the requests. The issue of back doors or skeleton keys for Chinese iPhones won't go away anytime soon. If Apple continues refusing to provide a way for government officials to break into Chinese iPhones (as it has for U.S. phones), Chinese authorities could impose tougher rules on Apple. In one dark scenario, Apple may be asked to either hand over iPhone encryption keys or exit the Chinese market. The Chinese government would like to see local phone makers like Xiaomi and Huawei begin challenging Apple as the world's top provider of premium phones. Apple's movement into China got underway when the iPhone 3GS went on sale through China Unicom (the country's second largest carrier) in late 2009. Apple later struck an important 2013 deal with the country's largest carrier, China Mobile, to sell the iPhone. And sales of the iPhone 6 and 6s lines have put Apple at or near the top of the pile in China.