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Qu T.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Qu T.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Cai J.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Zhang L.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | And 2 more authors.
Acta Geographica Sinica | Year: 2010

Coupled with rapidly elevation of urbanization, the use efficiency of urban land is low in development in China's city, the traffic jam increasingly extrude, and the environment pollution is strictness. But because of the disjoint between the urban land use planning and the urban traffic planning, the existing urban planning method is not effective on resolve the problem faced by city. This paper construct new method of Floor Area Rate Planning guide by Railway Traffic based on analysis of land use influence on urban traffic. Take Tianjin as an example, penmen carry through demonstration analysis on this method. Compared with existing Floor Area Rate Planning project, the new project in this paper not only can enhance the hold amount of public traffic and figure better urban sight, but also can save 10% traffic time, reduce 35% energy consume and 44% contamination, and stay much land used to greenbelt and park and other public land, make the city environment better to live. Therefore, this new method not only remedy the lack of our existing urban planning method, but also can solve the problem faced by our urban development. Source


Fang C.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Wu F.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Wu F.,China Tourism Academy | Li M.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research
Journal of Geographical Sciences | Year: 2011

The suitability evaluation of population and settlements spatial layout in the mountainous areas is an important basis on which the scale of population and settlement after Wenchuan Earthquake is determined. Based on the statistical data of field research, this paper chooses 1264 towns in 51 counties as the scope of evaluation, selects eight indices in the evaluation index system which includes post-disaster population scale, population density, urbanization rate, the percentage of migrant workers, death rate by earthquake, the percentage of minorities, elevation-slope integrated terrain and comprehensive geological condition. Besides, this paper uses AHP supported by entropy technique and fuzzy membership function model to calculate the suitability evaluation index and then divides the disaster areas into five types: highly suitable area (area accounted for 11.03%), relatively highly suitable area (15.29%), moderately suitable area (29%), less suitable area (30.08%) and unsuitable area (14.6%). According to the result of suitability evaluation, this paper puts forward several suggestions for the reconstruction as follows: the urban system and the building of new countryside should be guided by the suitability evaluation subareas; post-earthquake reconstruction avoids zones near Longmenshan fracture and high-mountain gorge areas as far as possible; the scale of population and settlement should not exceed the capacity of resources and environment; population should be resettled as close as possible by considering adequately the heterogenicity and homogeneity of regional nationality culture characteristics; densely resettle the people at plains and hilly areas; encourage the migrant workers settle in the working place with their families voluntarily; and urban system reconstruction such as industry layout and important projects of lifeline should be guided by the spatial layout suitability evaluation. © 2011 Science in China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Wu P.,China Tourism Academy | Shi P.,China Tourism Academy | Shi P.,Beijing Jiaotong University
Journal of Geographical Sciences | Year: 2011

In 2009, nearly 900 million international tourist arrivals were counted worldwide. A global activity of this scale can be assumed to have a substantial impact on the environment. In this contribution, five major aspects such as the change of LUCC and the use of energy and its associated impacts had been recognized. Recently, the impact of tourism on environment and climate attracts the attention of international organizations and societies in pace with rapid development of tourism industry. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in tourism sector are becoming a hot spot of international tourism research in recent five years. The use of energy for tourism can be divided according to transport-related purposes (travel to, from and at the destination) and destination-related purposes excluding transports (accommodation, food, tourist activities, etc.). In addition, the transports, accommodation and foods are related to many other industries which are dependent on energy. Thus, the estimations of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in tourism sector have become a worldwide concern. Tourism in China grows rapidly, and the number of domestic tourists was 1902 million in 2009. Energy use and its impact on the environment increase synchronously with China's tourism. It is necessary to examine the relationship between energy use and CO2 emissions. In this article, a preliminary attempt was applied to estimate the energy consumption and CO2 emissions from China's tourism sector in 2008. Bottom-up approach, literature research and mathematical statistics technology were also adopted. According to the calculations, Chinese tourism-related may have consumed approximately 428.30 PJ of energy in 2008, or about 0.51% of the total energy consumptions in China. It is estimated that CO2 emissions from tourism sector amounted to 51.34 Mt, accounting for 0.86% of the total in China. The results show that tourism is a low-carbon industry and also a pillar industry coping with global climate change, energy-saving and CO2 emission reduction. Based on this, the authors suggested that tourism should become an important field in low-carbon economic development. © 2011 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Shi P.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Shi P.,China Tourism Academy | Wu P.,China Tourism Academy
Acta Geographica Sinica | Year: 2011

In 2009, a total of nearly 900 million international tourist arrivals were counted worldwide. A global activity of this scale can be assumed to have a substantial impact on the environment. In this contribution, five major aspects such as the change of LUCC and the use of energy and its associated impacts had been recognized. Recently, the impact of tourism on environment and climate attracts the attention of international organizations and societies in pace with rapid development of tourism industry. Energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in tourism sector has become a hot topic of international tourism research in recent five years. The use of energy for tourism can be divided according to transport-related purposes (travel to, from and at the destination) and destination-related purposes excluding transports (accommodation, food, tourist activities, etc.). In addition, transports, accommodation and food are related to many other industries dependent on energy. Thus, the estimations of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in tourism sector have become a worldwide concern. Tourism in China grows rapidly, and the number of domestic tourists was 1902 million in 2009. Energy use and its impact on the environment increase synchronously with China's tourism. It is necessary to examine the relationship between energy use and CO 2 emissions. In this article, a preliminary attempt was applied to estimate the energy consumption and CO 2 emissions from China's tourism sector in 2008. Bottom-up approach, literature research and mathematical statistics technology were also adopted. According to the calculations, Chinese tourism-related may have consumed approximately 428.30 PJ of energy in 2008, or ahout 0.51% of the total energy consumptions in China. It is estimated that CO 2 emissions from tourism sector amounted to 51.34 Mt, accounting for 0.86% of the Chinese total. The results show that tourism is the industry of low-carbon and the leading industry coping with global climate change, energy-saving and CO 2 emission reduction. Based on this, the authors hold that tourism should become an important field in low-carbon economy. Source


Jiang Y.,China Tourism Academy
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011

In this research, a synthetic assessment system is developed in order to evaluate the eco-sustainability of roads and their spatial variability in a tourism area. A case study in Lijiang County, located in the northwest of Yunnan Province, is described. The tourism industry in this study area has developed rapidly in the past few years. The assessment employs tools such as landscape pattern metrics, total variation index, and stability coefficients. The studys results reveal that: (1) generally, the roads have helped to develop the tourism industry in Yulong County, and their impact on the environment is minimal; (2) there is significant spatial variability in eco-sustainability among roads; and (3) factors influencing road ecological sustainability include the intensity of tourist activities, the slope of the roads, the geological structure along the mountain roads, and the ecosystem sensitivity along the roads. The methodology has made major advances in five main areas. First, it considers both of the decisive factors of eco-sustainability in a tourism area-the development of a tourism industry, and its influence on ecosystems. These two form a coherent whole. Second, the methodology evaluates two aspects of road connectivity features: the internal rationale of road design and construction, and the external interference of geological hazards. The third highlight of this research is the establishment of a three-layer evaluation system of ecological effects, which includes the spheres of influence of an ecosystem, its pattern, and ecological factors. Fourth, the evaluation of road eco-sustainability in a tourism area would benefit by showing the spatial distinction of eco-sustainability of different roads. Fifth, the support vector machines model used in this paper could exclude the interference with the man-induced factor when defining weight for the category index. The keys to evaluate the eco-sustainability of the roads in a tourism area are the rational choice of indexes and the identification of thresholds. For instance, besides their tourism functions such ascommunication, they also perform many social and economic functions. In addition, the impacts of ecological factors such as the weather, soil, water, and creatures surrounding the roads should be considered as much as possible in the evaluation. But since some factors are difficult to quantify or statistics difficult to obtain, future research will focus on improving the evaluation indexes further. To this end, we should carry out experimental studies in order to identify more reasonable ecological thresholds. The ultimate purpose of our research is to provide references for road construction in the tourism area and for the protection of ecological integrity. Therefore, in constructing roads in the tourism area, we should first plan and design road levels in light of the development plan and trend of the tourist area and the tourist capacity of its roads. Next, in road planning and designing, we should consider the slope-elevation relationship and try to circumvent areas where geological disasters are likely to occur, thus improving road safety and comfort. Finally, we should follow the principle of giving priority to conservation and try not to let the roads run across ecologically sensitive areas. Meanwhile, we must consider restoring the disabled ecological functions and improving the habitat quality on the sides of existing roads, and propose measures for ecological restoration. Source

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