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Cyanidin 3-rutinoside is an important anthocyanin which has good antioxidant activity and beneficial health effects. It was prepared from litchi fruit pericarp by ultrasound-assisted extraction and purified in this work. A mathematical model was built between ultrasonic power, time, ethanol concentration and cyanidin 3-rutinoside yield. The R2, P-values of model and "lack of fit" indicated the high fitness of the model to true behavior. Every factor showed evident effects and interactions on the cyanidin 3-rutinoside yield. The optimal conditions to obtain the highest yield of cyanidin 3-rutinoside were 240 W of ultrasonic power, 34.5 min of ultrasonic time and 54.1% of ethanol concentration. The predicted yield of cyanidin 3-rutinoside was not significantly (p > 0.05) different to the practical value conducted under optimal conditions. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Wang H.,South China Agricultural University | Wang H.,China Tobacco Guangdong Industry Co. | Chen J.,South China Agricultural University | Lin R.,China Tobacco Guangdong Industry Co. | And 4 more authors.
Acta Tabacaria Sinica | Year: 2013

Chromoplast pigment content and activity of key enzymes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism were determined in order to study effects of transplanting period on quality of flue-cured tobacco at maturation stage. Results showed that yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco were significantly affected by transplanting period. Advance transplanting could increase chromoplast pigment content, nitrate reductasre (NR) and amylase activity at early maturing period. The later appearance of peak value of NR activity was beneficial to extend functional period. Tobacco leaves of excessive advance transplanting had higher chlorophyII content and NR activity at late ripening period, and the transformation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism was discordant, which against leaf yellowing and maturity. Yields and economic value were reduced by excessive advance transplanting. Delay of transplanting time would improve yield of flue-cured tobacco, while reduce enzyme activity and chromoplast pigment content, which led to premature senescence of tobacco. The proportion of mid to high grade tobacco leaves after curing was reduced, hence economic value and average price were reduced. Therefore, a suitable transplanting period of flue-cured tobacco planted in northern Guangdong province is from Feb. 19 to Feb. 24.

Rao G.,China Tobacco Guangdong Industry Co. | Shen G.,China Tobacco Guangdong Industry Co. | Xu G.,China Tobacco Guangdong Industry Co.
Journal of Food Process Engineering | Year: 2011

Litchi is an exotic fruit in tropical and subtropical areas. In this work, litchi pericarp was chosen to extract coenzyme Q10 by ultrasonic treatment. Response surface methodology was used to build a mathematical model between the yield of coenzyme Q10 and ultrasonic variables (ultrasonic power, time and temperature). The P values of the model and "lack of fit," as well as R2, were determined to be 0.0006, 0.143 and 0.938, respectively. All these values confirmed that the model had a good fitness to the true behavior. The response surface plots indicated that ultrasonic time and temperature showed apparent effects on the yield of coenzyme Q10. The optimal conditions to obtain the highest yield of coenzyme Q10 were determined to be 127.9 W, 50.0 min and 69.8C. The predicted yield was 135.3 μg/g dry pericarp, which was not significantly (P > 0.05) different to the experimental value determined under the same ultrasonic conditions. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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