Chen J.,Institute of Management Sciences |
Kauffman R.J.,Arizona State University |
Liu Y.,China Shenhua Coal to Liquid and Chemical Co. |
Song X.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications | Year: 2010
Demand uncertainty is a key factor in a seller's decision-making process for products sold through online auctions. We explore demand uncertainty in group-buying auctions in terms of the extent of low-valuation demand and high-valuation demand. We focus on the analysis of a monopolistic group-buying retailer that sells products to consumers who express different product valuations. We also examine the performance of a group-buying seller who faces competitive posted-price sellers in a market for the sale of the same products, under similar assumptions about uncertain demand. Based on a Nash equilibrium analysis of bidder strategies for both of these seller-side competition structures, we are able to characterize the group-buying auction bidders' dominant strategies. We obtained a number of interesting findings. Group-buying is likely to be more effective in settings where there is larger low-valuation demand than high-valuation demand. The structure of demand matters. This finding has relevance to the marketplace for new cameras, next-generation microprocessors and computers, and other high-valuation goods, which are unlikely to be as effectively sold in group-buying markets. We obtained additional results for the case of continuous demand, and find that there is a basis for the seller to improve revenues via effective group-buying auction price curve design. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source
Li H.,China Shenhua Coal to Liquid and Chemical Co. |
Wang G.,Thermal Power Research Institute
Dongli Gongcheng Xuebao/Journal of Chinese Society of Power Engineering | Year: 2014
Physical and chemical properties of Wucaiwan coal, Wudong coal and their mixtures with different blending ratios were respectively analyzed, including the ignition temperature test for pulverized coal, the combustion and slagging tests in a one-dimensional furnace, and the test for contamination properties of coal ash with a 200 kW contamination test facility, while the ignition, burn-out and slagging properties of above coal mixtures were evaluated. Final evaluation was performed to main properties of the coal samples using expert system, and the coal ash contamination property was verified with two contamination criteria, based on which suggested design and checking coal were proposed. Results show that the coal mixtures have strong slagging tendency; Wucaiwan coal has strong contamination tendency, while Wudong coal has low contamination tendency. The contamination tendency of Wucaiwan coal can be reduced by blending Wudong coal. The suggested design and checking coal are both mixtures of Wucaiwan and Wudong coal respectively with blending ratios of 7:3 and 5:5. Source
Wu X.-Z.,China Shenhua Coal to Liquid and Chemical Co.
Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chemical Industry | Year: 2015
The technology and emission features of the modern coal to liquid (CTL) and coal to chemical (CTC) industry as well as the special ecological environment of the industrial region require the industry to highly emphasize on water saving and ecological protection. It is an important water-saving measure for modern CTL and CTC industry to accomplish zero-discharge of wastewater. The practical operation experience of Shenhua CTL and CTC demonstration projects has indicated that by proper combination of different technologies such as process extraction, bio-chemical treatment, advanced membrane separation, evaporation and crystallization, as well as deep purification, it is feasible to accomplish zero wastewater discharge for modern CTL and CTC projects. ©, 2015, China National Chemical Information Center. All right reserved. Source
Xiuzhang W.,China Shenhua Coal to Liquid and Chemical Co.
Mining Report | Year: 2014
The Chinese government places great importance on the issues of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. On the eve of the 2009 Copenhagen conference, the government of China put forth a target of reducing CO2 emissions per unit of GDP in 2020 by 40 to 45% compared to 2005. In the "Outline of the 12th Five-Year Plan for the National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China", China stated its plan to "significantly reduce the intensity of energy consumption and the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions, effectively controlling greenhouse gas emissions", which highlighted China's conviction and determination to combat climate change. Shenhua Group is one of the largest coal-based integrated energy suppliers in the world. In recent years, there have been significant improvements in the coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals sector. These improvements have led the way for strategic energy security projects, such as domestically producing petroleum alternatives and developing clean coal technology in China and the world. While actively promoting petroleum alternatives and clean coal technologies, Shenhua Group is also paying close attention to major issues such as CO2 emissions and climate change, and is actively exploring the development of a coal-based low-carbon energy system for China. One major step in this development is the comprehensive (i.e., capture and storage) CCS project at its Ordos direct coal liquefaction facility. © 2014 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin. Source
Qian W.,China Shenhua Coal to Liquid and Chemical Co.
Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chemical Industry | Year: 2014
According to the currently published technical and economic data, the economy of lignite to polypropylene project and low rank bituminous coal to polypropylene is analyzed and compared. The technical risk of lignite to polypropylene is analyzed. The results show that there is only very slight difference of economic indicators between lignite to polypropylene project and low rank bituminous coal to polypropylene. However, lignite gasification technology will face a huge technical risk. Therefore, in the case of absence of special obvious economic advantage, it is not appropriate to choose lignit as raw material to produce polypropylene. Based on possessing coal mine and realizing local transforming of coal, choosing low rank bituminous coal as raw material to produce polypropylene is more feasible in economy and technology. ©, 2014, China National Chemical Information Center. All right reserved. Source