China Rural Technology Development Center

Beijing, China

China Rural Technology Development Center

Beijing, China
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Chen L.,Beijing Normal University | Li X.,Beijing Normal University | Wen W.,Beijing Normal University | Jia J.,China Rural Technology Development Center | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

China is rich in biomass resources, with favorable conditions for the development and utilization of biomass energy. Currently, the main secondary forms of biomass energy utilized in China include biogas, biomass power, bioethanol, biodiesel. By the end of 2010, the annual output of biogas in China had reached 14.3×10 9 m 3; the installed capacity of biomass power had reached 5.5×10 6 kw; the annual output of bioethanol had reached 1.84×10 6 t; the annual output of biodiesel was 400×10 3 t. Although China is very rich in biomass resources, the percentage of biomass energy in the total energy utilized in China is very low. In 2010, the biomass secondary energy accounted for 7.28% of the total renewable energy consumption; and only 0.66% of the primary energy consumption in China. Compared with other types of renewable energy, the biomass energy development remains very slow and even marginalized. The development of secondary sources of energy in China is relatively slow, the reasons for which are many, such as food security, high production costs, obsolete equipment, technological immaturity, insufficient raw materials, and a serious shortage of investments. In fact, the root causes for the slow development of the biomass secondary energy industry are the government's focus on economic development and the private enterprises focus on economic benefits. The lower economic benefits of the biomass secondary energy industry do not intrinsically motivate them to promote its development. Entering the market is crucial to the development of the biomass secondary energy and requires strong implementation and policy guarantees by the government. Biomass secondary energy has a positive role in reducing greenhouse gas emission, reducing waste pollution, and increasing employment opportunities. It is recommended that the government and enterprises should actively promote the development of the biomass secondary energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Long H.,Beijing Normal University | Long H.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Li X.,Beijing Normal University | Wang H.,Beijing Normal University | Jia J.,China Rural Technology Development Center
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Biomass and bioenergy potential estimation has been worldwide research highlights in renewable energy field to get comprehensive understand of bioenergy development, especially under the situation of energy crisis. This paper reviews the results of previous studies that investigated biomass resources and their bioenergy potential estimation. It is organized from the perspectives of traditional vs. newly-introduced approaches and present vs. future. First, according to the methods used in relative studies, existing studies were divided into two categories: statistical data based and RS-GIS based. Second, concerning about the future of bioenergy, biomass and bioenergy potential estimation under different scenarios in the future were also reviewed and summarized according to the dominant factor considered in simulation. At last, based on the reviews above, questions and the future of bioenergy potential estimation were proposed so as to provide some instructions for bioenergy development. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Shen X.L.,Southwest University | Shen X.L.,China Agricultural University | Wu J.M.,Southwest University | Chen Y.,China Rural Technology Development Center | And 3 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2010

Antimicrobial biodegradable films have been prepared with sweet potato starch by incorporating potassium sorbate or chitosan. Films incorporated with potassium sorbate ≥ 15% or chitosan ≥ 5% were found to have an anti-Escherichia coli effect. Staphylococcus aureus could be effectively suppressed by incorporation of chitosan at ≥10%. Whereas potassium sorbate lowers the tensile strength and elongation at break, and raises the oxygen permeability, water vapor permeability and water solubility, chitosan has the opposite effect. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra analysis revealed that starch crystallinity was retarded by potassium sorbate incorporation and that hydrogen bonds were formed between chitosan and starch. This explained the modification of the mechanical and physical properties of the films by the incorporation of these two antimicrobial agents. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wei K.,China Agricultural University | Sun H.,China Agricultural University | Sun Z.,China Agricultural University | Sun Y.,China Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2014

Genetic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus was derived from well-established swine influenza lineages; however, there is no convincing evidence that the pandemic virus was generated from a direct precursor in pigs. Furthermore, the evolutionary dynamics of influenza virus in pigs have not been well documented. Here, we subjected a recombinant virus (rH1N1) with the same constellation makeup as the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus to nine serial passages in pigs. The severity of infection sequentially increased with each passage. Deep sequencing of viral quasispecies from the ninth passage found five consensus amino acid mutations: PB1 A469T, PA 1129T, NA N329D, NS1 N205K, and NEP T48N. Mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, however, differed greatly between the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Three representative viral clones with the five consensus mutations were selected for functional evaluation. Relative to the parental virus, the three viral clones showed enhanced replication and polymerase activity in vitro and enhanced replication, pathogenicity, and transmissibility in pigs, guinea pigs, and ferrets in vivo. Specifically, two mutants of rH1N1 (PB1 A469T and a combination of NS1 N205K and NEP T48N) were identified as determinants of transmissibility in guinea pigs. Crucially, one mutant viral clone with the five consensus mutations, which also carried D187E, K211E, and S289N mutations in its HA, additionally was able to infect ferrets by airborne transmission as effectively as the pandemic virus. Our findings demonstrate that influenza virus can acquire viral characteristics that are similar to those of the pandemic virus after limited serial passages in pigs. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.

Wu S.,Jiangnan University | Zhang H.,China Rural Technology Development Center | Shi Z.,Jiangnan University | Duan N.,Jiangnan University | And 3 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2015

A novel aptamer-based fluorescence biosensor was developed for the detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) using aptamer-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for both recognition and concentration elements and using upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as highly sensitive signal labels. The bioassay system was fabricated by immobilizing aptamer onto the surface of MNPs, which were employed to capture and concentrate CAP. In the absence of target, MNPs-aptamer hybridizes to its complementary DNA (cDNA) which was modified with UCNPs, form the duplex structure therefore giving a maximum fluorescent signal. Upon CAP addition, the aptamer preferentially bound with CAP and caused the dissociation of some cDNA, liberating some UCNPs-cDNA and leading to a decreased fluorescent signal on the surface of MNPs. Under optimized assay conditions, a wide linear detection range (from 0.01 to 1ngmL-1) was achieved with a detection limit down to 0.01ngmL-1. The proposed method then was successfully applied to measure CAP in contaminated milk samples and validated by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Improved by the magnetic separation and concentration effect of MNPs, the high sensitivity of UCNPs and the high affinity of aptamers, the present method performs with both high sensitivity and selectivity for CAP. Besides, this strategy can be applied to detect other antibiotics. Utilization of the proposed biosensor for quantitative determination of antibiotics in food samples may provide significant improvements in quality control of food safety. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Liu J.-F.,Tianjin University of Commerce | Liu J.-F.,Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food Biotechnology | Liu H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tan B.,Academy of State Administration of Grain | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic | Year: 2012

A nanosized support for reversible immobilization of enzymes, magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) nanospheres grafted with polyethyleneimine, was prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The novel support displayed 3.2-fold higher adsorption capacity for Kluyveromyces fragilis β-galactosidase than commercial ion exchange resin DEAE-Sepharose, the maximum amount of the enzyme adsorbed on the support reached 86.7 mg/g with enzyme activity recovery of 92.5%. The adsorbed K. fragilis β-galactosidase showed high catalytic activity and operational stability for synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), 4.5 kg of GOS were produced per gram of adsorbed enzyme from lactose during 15 consecutive batch reactions by reuse of the same biocatalyst, and the immobilized biocatalyst retained about 84.6% of its initial activity after 15 cycles of batch operation. The support could be regenerated and reused, remaining 93.0% of its original adsorption capacity at the end of the twentieth adsorption-desorption cycle. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Jing D.,Capital Normal University | Jing D.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Wang J.,China Rural Technology Development Center
Biotechnology for Biofuels | Year: 2012

Background: Use of crude ligninase of bacterial origin is one of the most promising ways to improve the practical biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass. However, lignin is composed of diverse monolignols with different abundance levels in different plant biomass and requires different proportions of ligninase to realize efficient degradation. To improve activity and reduce cost, the simultaneous submerged fermentation of laccase and lignin peroxidase (LiP) from a new bacterial strain, Streptomyces cinnamomensis, was studied by adopting formulation design, principal component analysis, regression analysis and unconstrained mathematical programming. Results: The activities of laccase and LiP from S. cinnamomensis cultured with the optimal medium formulations were improved to be five to eight folders of their initial activities, and the measured laccase:LiP activity ratios reached 0.1, 0.4 and 1.7 when cultured on medium with formulations designed to produce laccase:LiP complexes with theoretical laccase:LiP activity ratios of 0.05 to 0.1, 0.5 to 1 and 1.1 to 2. Conclusion: Both the laccase and LiP activities and also the activity ratio of laccase to LiP could be controlled by the medium formulation as designed. Using a crude laccase-LiP complex with a specially designed laccase:LiP activity ratio has the potential to improve the degradation of various plant lignins composed of diverse monolignols with different abundance levels. © 2012 Jing and Wang; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Zhang Z.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Duan Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Chen Z.,China Rural Technology Development Center | Xu P.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Li G.,Hebei Normal University
Plant OMICS | Year: 2010

This paper demonstrates the capability of China to feed itself and the effects of the food security of China on the world. In the past two decades, China didn't cause any food crisis; on the contrary, she exports grain, vegetables, fruits and aquatic products. Chinese hybrid rice and other agricultural technologies have greatly promoted the world food security. It is speculated that in the future, China's agriculture development will meet both great challenges and opportunities. Overall, China will not only be self-sufficient but also improve the world food security.

Yang H.,Zhejiang University | Ge Y.,China Rural Technology Development Center | Sun Y.,Zhejiang University | Liu D.,Zhejiang University | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Leaves of each of two bayberry cultivars, Biqi and Dongkui, were divided into three categories by age, namely immature, intermediate, and mature. Phenolic compounds were analysed by the methods of HPLC-DAD and HPLC-UV-ESIMS. Gallic acid and EGCG were identified positively, and 13 other compounds (flavan-3-ol monomers, prodelphinidin oligomers, and flavonol glycosides) were partially identified. Gallic acid (7.5-87.8 mg/100 g) was the only phenolic acid detected and flavan-3-ols were abundant. Myricetin deoxyhexoside (535.4-853.0 mg/100 g) was the major flavonol glycoside. Among the three categories, immature leaves of both cultivars recorded the highest level of total phenolics, irrespective of whether they were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (19404.0 mg/100 g in Biqi and 19626.0 mg/100 g in Dongkui) or as the sum of individual phenolic compounds (2255.9 mg/100 g in Biqi and 1797.1 mg/100 g in Dongkui). The results showed that bayberry leaves are a potentially rich source of beneficial phenolics. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Han J.,Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine | Wu Y.,Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine | Huang W.,Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine | Wang B.,Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine | And 3 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2012

To provide accurate and fast method for labeling regulation on fruit juice, conventional PCR, real-time PCR and DHPLC techniques were explored in this study to detect ingredient from 7 fruit species. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, TrnL-TrnF from chloroplast genome and thaumatin-like protein gene from nucleus genome were targeted. Sensitivity of 6 primer (probe) pairs was determined to be 1-10. pg DNA. Orange and mandarin were universally amplified by the same primer pair and the 8. bp divergence of PCR products could be differentiated by DHPLC analysis. 30 Fruit samples collected from local market were tested and no mislabeling was discovered. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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