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Zhang D.,China Petrochemical Corporation
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2012

The development of technologies for processing sulfur sour crudes in China is reviewed in respect of; (1) Expanded capacity for processing low-quality crudes. Not only the capacity for processing owquality crude is greatly increased but also the configurations of process units of refineries are optimized. (2) Improved electro-static desalting technology. (3) The materials of equipment and piping are greatly upgraded. As proper material selection is very important in processing sour/high-sulfur or acidic/high-TAN crude, "Guidelines for Material Selection in Equipment and Piping Design of Process Units Processing High-Sulfur Crudes" (SH/T 3096-2010) and "Guidelines for Material Selection in Equipment and Piping Design of Process Units Processing High-TAN Crudes" (SH/T 3129-2010) have been revised. The recommendation and application of these guidelines have played an important role in standardization of material selection for equipment and piping in the units processing sour/high-sulfur and acidic/high-TAN crudes. (4) Successful development and commercial application of desulfurization and deacidification state-of-the-art technologies, such as SSR sulfur recovery process developed by Shandong Sunway Petrochemical Engineering Co. , Ltd. , ZHSR sulfur recovery process developed by Zhenhai Petrochemical Engineering Co. , and catalytic cracking deacidification process developed by Research Institute of Petroleum Processing ( RIPP) . In addition, a arge number of processes and technologies of heavy oil processing, VGO hydrotreatment, hydrocracking, deep diesel desulfurization and selective gasoline hydrogenation, etc have been developed for production of Euro-IV and Euro-V clean gasoline and diesel. Basic comments on processing high-sulfur and high-TAN crudes based upon existing technologies both in China and abroad are provided, and the following recommendations are made: (1) Provision of sufficient sulfur recovery and sulfur production capacities; (2) Highlighting heavy or residue oil processing; (2) Provision of sufficient hydroprocessing capacities; (2) Improvement of corrosionresistance performance of process equipment; (5) Greater attention to environmental protection.

Zhang D.,China Petrochemical Corporation
Petroleum Refinery Engineering | Year: 2012

The crude oil supply in China is studied, and the peak crude oil productions and development are predicted. It is concluded that the crude oil production in China has already entered the peak period. The peak platform is 180-200 million tons per year, which will possibly go beyond the year 2035. Based upon the conventional crude oil deposit and production, there is a great deficit between crude oil supply and demand. In the past 5 years the crude oil processing capacity and crude oil processed in China have been in creased by 20.58% and 29.36% respectively, while the crude oil processing capacity is only increased by 3. 57% in the same period in the world. At the same time, the rapid development of petroleum refineries and refinery expansion have aggravated the crude oil deficit and reliance on the imported crude oil. Since the beginning of this century the amount of imported crude oil and reliance on imported crude oil in China have been rising at the same time and the reliance on imported crude oil has exceeded the50% warning line since 2008 which is becoming increasingly serious.The imported crude oil are transported mainly through 3 long-distance crude oil pipelines and ocean oil tankers to the refineries and petrochemical plants in different regions in China.

Yuan Q.,China Petrochemical Corporation
Shiyou Huagong/Petrochemical Technology | Year: 2014

The development trends of green low carbon in petrochemical industry were reviewed. Progresses in green chemistry and chemical technology were introduced. The international large-scale petrochemical companies actively carried out the development strategy of the green low carbon. It has become a trend that developing and applying new technology of energy conservation and emissions reduction in petrochemical industry. Bio-based chemicals are an important development direction of the green low carbon in petrochemical industry. The international petrochemical companies actively carried out the researches in the capture, storage and application of carbon dioxide. At the same time, the preliminary development of the green low carbon in China's petrochemical industry was summarized and the serious challenges which the green low carbon faced in China's petrochemical industry were analyzed. Some thinking about promoting the development of the green low carbon in China' petrochemical industry was proposed.

Huang X.,China Petrochemical Corporation | Wu X.-D.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing
Xinan Shiyou Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Southwest Petroleum University | Year: 2010

The Jiusha Formation in Sha-3 member of well Yi-65 is a typical reservoir characterized by medium water sensitivity and speed sensitivity; the crude oil is light-thin oil possessing high solidification point, low density, viscosity and sulphur content; the salinity of the formation water can be as high as 1 100 ∼ 19 900 mg/L in general, and the water belongs to sodium hydrogen carbonate typed water. This paper investigates the formation damage mechanisms of well Yi-65 with high temperature and low permeability, and evaluates the possible damage and damage conditions from the aspects of formation characteristics, injected water quality, suspended particle blocking, free oil, emulsified oil, scaling, bacteria and past stimulation treatments. The internal factors of the damage to water injection wells include water sensitivity, speed sensitivity and low permeability, and the external factors contain solid suspended particles, poor water quality, excessively high oil content and bacteria numbers.

Gu M.,CAS Beijing Institute of Genomics | Dong X.,University of Houston | Zhang X.,China Petrochemical Corporation | Niu W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

Abstract The association between the polymorphic CAG repeat in androgen receptor gene (AR) and prostate cancer susceptibility has been studied extensively. However, the results are contradictory. The purpose of our meta-analysis was to investigate whether CAG repeat related to prostate cancer risk and had genetic heterogeneity across different geographic regions and study designs. Random-effects model was performed irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Data and study quality were assessed in duplicate. Publication bias was assessed by the fail-safe number and Egger's test. There were 16 (patients/controls: 2972/3792), 19 (3835/4908) and 12 (3372/2631) study groups for comparisons of C20, 22 and 23 repeats of CAG sequence, respectively. Compared with CAG repeat<20, 22 or 23, carriers of ≥20, 22 or 23 repeats had 21% (95% CI: 0.61-1.02; P = 0.076), 5% (95% CI: 0.81-1.11; P = 0.508) and 5% (95% CI: 0.76-1.20; P = 0.681) decreased risk of prostate cancer. After classifying studies by geographic areas, carriers of ≥20 repeats had 11% decreased risk in populations from USA, 53% from Europe, and 20% from Asia (P>0.05), whereas comparison of ≥23 repeats with others generated a significant prediction in European populations (OR = 1.17; P = 0.039). Stratification by study designs revealed no material changes in risk estimation. Meta-regression analysis found no significant sources of between-study heterogeneity for age, study design and geographic region for all comparisons. There was no identified publication bias. Taken together, our results demonstrated that AR CAG repeat polymorphism with C20 repeats might confer a protective effect among the prostate cancer patients with 45 years older but not all the prostate cancer patients. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

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