Zhu J.-L.,China Paulownia Research Center |
Zhu J.-L.,The Eucommia Engineering Research Center |
Li F.-D.,China Paulownia Research Center |
Li F.-D.,The Eucommia Engineering Research Center |
And 2 more authors.
Forest Research | Year: 2014
In order to reveal the formation reasons for different colors of ornamental Eucommia leaf, the leaves of Eucommia ulmoides 'Hongye', E. ulmoides 'Miye' andE. ulmoides 'Xiaoye' were studied by using freehand section combined with photosynthetic pigments and anthocyanin content measurement. The results showed that forE. ulmoides 'Hongye', the front of the blade was dark red while the back was green, the pigment causing redness concentrates on the leaf palisade tissue; among the three varieties, Ca was 1.100 3~1.314 8 mg·g-1, Cb was 0.435 4~0.467 0 mg·g-1, CCar was 0.384 7~0.445 5 mg·g-1, CT was 1.462 5~1.781 8 mg·g-1, CF was 0.140 8~0.304 2 mg·g-1, CCar and CF of E. ulmoides 'Hongye' were significantly higher than that of E. ulmoides 'Miye' and E. ulmoides 'Xiaoye', while CT/CCar was significantly lower than E. ulmoides 'Miye' and E. ulmoides 'Xiaoye', moreover, the Ca, Cb, Ca/Cb and CT showed no significant difference between E. ulmoides.'Hongye' and E. ulmoides 'Miye'. The conclusion in this study stated that the anthocyanin and carotenoids contents were higher, which was the main reason for forming red color of E. ulmoides 'Hongye'
Diao S.F.,China Paulownia Research Center |
Diao S.F.,Chinese Academy of Forestry |
Jiang J.M.,Chinese Academy of Forestry |
Yue H.F.,China Paulownia Research Center |
And 3 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2016
Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. is a traditional and important virescent tree species in southern China with peel and seed oil rich in saponins. This tree species is one of the newly developed woody-oil species approved by the State Forestry Administration of China. To investigate the flowering phenology and characteristics of this multipurpose tree species, we observed and compared 9-yr-old plantations of S. mukorossi at population, individual, inflorescence, and single-flower levels in Zhejiang Province, Tiantai County, from 2012 to 2013, based on the first flowering date, relative flowering intensity, flowering synchrony, and so on. The results showed that the flower color of S. mukorossi was yellowish white and the flowers were either male or bisexual. The male flower (5. 09 mm in diameter) was larger than the bisexual flower (3. 72 mm in diameter). There were usually eight stamens in the male flower; however, a few flowers had seven, nine, or ten. The pistil of the male flower was degenerated and only a slight, light-green protuberance was preserved. The calyx of the bisexual flower folded together lightly and the anthers were under the perianthes. There were generally eight stamens in the bisexual flower, but some also had seven or nine. The chapiter was higher than the anther and was outside the bud. Generally, the ovary had three chambers, but had two or four in rare cases. S. mukorossi flowered earlier in 2012 than in 2013, and the flowering period of the test populations was from the middle of May to late June. The development of the single flower was 8—9 d long from the flower bud to wilting stages. In 2012 and 2013, the florescences of the population, individuals, and inflorescences were approximately 30, 20, and 11 d, and 28, 19, and 13 d, respectively. The flowering amplitude of individuals and inflorescences showed a single peak, sharing a high similarity from year to year. The temporal patterns of flowering of S. mukorossi were very similar at the population level, with a well-defined peak and marked synchrony. The index of synchronicity was about 0. 868. The relative flowering intensity was distributed over a wide range, but was concentrated between 30% and 40%. The flowering intensity showed an extremely significant (P = 0. 01) correlation annually and over different years. The range of variation of flowering synchrony was 0. 81—0. 97 and 0. 70—0. 98 in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The flowering synchrony correlation was extremely significant (P =0. 01) annually, but not in different years. This suggested that there were temporal and spatial differences in the allocation of S. mukorossi reproductive resources, with longer flowering periods and higher flowering synchronization. Long flowering periods can alleviate the interference of illegal pollen and maintain population gene diversity. Heredity is the main factor affecting flowering phenology in S. mukorossi populations. The effects of ecological and environmental factors on flowering phenology need to be researched further. © 2016, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.
Jia B.G.,Central South University of forestry and Technology |
Lin Q.,Central South University of forestry and Technology |
Feng Y.Z.,China Paulownia Research Center |
Hu X.Y.,Anhui Agricultural University |
And 3 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2015
Camellia oleifera is an important edible oil woody plant in China. Lack of useful molecular markers hinders current genetic research on this tree species. Transcriptome sequencing of developing C. oleifera seeds generated 69,798 unigenes. A total of 6949 putative microsatellites were discovered among 6042 SSR-containing unigenes. Then, 150 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were evaluated in 20 varieties of C. oleifera. Of these, 52 SSRs revealed polymorphism, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 2 to 15 and expected heterozygosity values from 0.269 to 0.888. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.32 to 0.897. Cross-species transferability rates in Camellia chekangoleosa and Camellia japonica were 90.4 and 78.8%, respectively. The 52 polymorphic unigene-derived SSR markers serve to enrich existing microsatellite marker resources for C. oleifera and offer potential for applications in genetic diversity evaluation, molecular fingerprinting, and genetic mapping in C. oleifera, C. chekangoleosa, and C. japonica. ©FUNPEC-RP.
Zhang L.,Central South University of forestry and Technology |
Lin Q.,Central South University of forestry and Technology |
Feng Y.,China Paulownia Research Center |
Fan X.,Central South University of forestry and Technology |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015
The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) seed provides a rich source of carbohydrates as food and feed. However, little is known about starch biosynthesis in the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine seed composition profiles and identify genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism. Metabolite analysis showed that starch was the major component and rapidly accumulated during seed endosperm development. Amylopectin was approximately 3-fold of amylose content in chestnut starch. Illumina platform-based transcriptome sequencing generated 56671 unigenes in two cDNA libraries from seed endosperms collected at 45 and 75 days after fl owering (DAF). A total of 1537 unigenes showed expression differences ≥2-fold in the two stages of seeds including 570 up-regulated and 967 down-regulated unigenes. One hundred and fifty-two unigenes were identified as involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, including 1 for glycogenin glucosyltransferase, 4 for adenylate transporter (brittle1-type), 3 for ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP, not brittle2- or shrunken2-type), 3 for starch synthase (SS), 2 for starch branching enzyme, 5 for starch debranching enzyme, 11 for sucrose synthase, and 3 for sucrose-phosphate synthase. Among them, 58 unigenes showed a ≥2-fold expression difference between the 45 and 75 DAF seeds including 11 up- and 47 down-regulated unigenes. The expression of 21 unigenes putatively coding for major enzymes in starch and sucrose metabolism was validated by qPCR using RNA from five seed stages. Expression profiles and correlation analysis indicated that the mRNA levels of AGP (large and small subunits), granule-bound SS2, and soluble SS1 and SS4 were well-correlated with starch accumulation in the seeds. This study suggests that the starch biosynthesis pathway in Chinese chestnut is similar to that of potato tuber/Arabidopsis leaf and differs from that of maize endosperm. The information provides valuable metabolite and genetic resources for future research in starch and sucrose metabolism in Chinese chestnut tree. © 2014 American Chemical Society.