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Tao C.,State Oceanic Administration | Lin J.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Guo S.,China Ocean Mineral Resources R and D Association | Chen Y.J.,Peking University | And 8 more authors.
Geology | Year: 2012

The ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge is a major tectonic province, representing one of the important end-member mid-ocean-ridge types for its very slow and oblique spreading, and providing the only known route for migration of chemosynthetic deep-sea vent fauna between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. We report the investigation of the first active hightemperature hydrothermal field found on any ultraslow mid-ocean ridge worldwide. Located on Southwest Indian Ridge at 37°47'S, 49°39'E, it consists of three zones extending ~1000 m laterally, and it is one of four recently discovered active and inactive vent sites within a 250-km-long magmatically robust section. Our results provide the first direct evidence for potentially widespread distribution of hydrothermal activity along ultraslow-spreading- ridges.at least along magmatically robust segments. This implies that the segment sections with excess heat from enhanced magmatism and suitable crustal permeability along slow and ultraslow ridges might be the most promising areas for searching for hydrothermal activities. It is surprising that the special vent fauna appear to indicate some complex affinity to those on the Central Indian Ridge, southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the southwest Pacific Ocean. © 2012 Geological Society of America.


Qin C.,Tsinghua University | Song S.,Tsinghua University | Huang G.,Tsinghua University | Zhu L.,China Ocean Mineral Resources R and D Association
Neurocomputing | Year: 2015

In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised distance metric learning algorithm. The proposed algorithm aims to maximize a stochastic variant of the leave-one-out K-nearest neighbor (KNN) score on unlabeled data, which performs distance metric learning and clustering simultaneously. We show that the joint distance metric learning and clustering problem is formulated as a trace optimization problem, and can be solved efficiently by an iterative algorithm. Moreover, the proposed approach can also learn a low dimensional projection of high dimensional data, thus it can serve as an unsupervised dimensionality reduction tool, which is capable of performing joint dimensionality reduction and clustering. We validate our method on a number of benchmark datasets, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


He G.-W.,Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey | Sun X.-M.,Sun Yat Sen University | Yang S.-X.,Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey | Zhu K.-C.,Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey | Song C.-B.,China Ocean Mineral Resources R and D Association
Geology in China | Year: 2011

Polymetallic nodules and cobalt-rich crusts are two types of ferro-manganese deposits in the ocean. In order to probe into their REE geochemical characteristics in different oceanic areas of the Pacific Ocean, the authors collected samples from eastern Pacific basin, central Pacific Ocean and western Pacific Ocean and examined REE characteristics by means of ICP-AES. There are obvious positive Ce anomalies, rich LREE (light REE) and high total REE (XlREE) in the crusts. In contrast, there are rich HRjEE (heave REE) and relatively low X REE in the nodules, Ce anomalies have different styles, such as positive, negative and indistinct anomalies caused by different genetic types of nodules. The "M" type tetrad effects of nodules indicate that the nodules have suffered diagenesis, while the crusts have not been subjected to this effect. There exist different modes of occurrence of REE in nodules and crusts in different oceanic areas. REE in the crusts from central Pacific Ocean and in the nodules from eastern Pacific Ocean probably exist in the Fe-mineral phase, whereas REE in the crusts from western Pacific Ocean might exist in the Mn-mineral phase. REE in the nodules and crusts might have been mainly derived from seawater and seamount altered basalt respectively, with limited hydrothermal contribution.


Zhang X.-N.,Tsinghua University | Song S.-J.,Tsinghua University | Li J.-B.,State Oceanic Administration | Zhou N.,China Ocean Mineral Resources R and D Association
Zhongnan Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal of Central South University (Science and Technology) | Year: 2011

Seafloor hydrothermal sulphide is a new poly metallic ore resource as well as oceanic poly metallic nodules and rich-Co crust containing huge amounts of metals and rare metals. The appropriate and accurate estimation of ore grade plays an important role for the prediction of total mineral resources and further exploitation. Kriging and neural network methods have already been successfully used for grade estimation problem. However, the performance of these methods is not perfect for the limited borehole data. Therefore, this paper introduces a new nonlinear method to the issue of ore grade estimation based on the least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR). The borehole data obtained from Solwara 1 region are heterogeneous and discontinuities with huge missing values. Data preprocessing methods including weighted K-nearest neighbor (WKNN) imputation and Genetic algorithm (GA) for data segmentation were used before using LS-SVR algorithm. Finally the performance and efficacy of the LS-SVR were compared with BP, RBF neural network and geostatistical techniques such as inverse distance weight (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK). The outcome indicates that the LS-SVR method outperforms other four methods.


Cui W.-C.,China Ship Scientific Research Center | Liu F.,China Ocean Mineral Resources R and D Association | Hu Z.,China Ship Scientific Research Center | Zhu M.,CAS Beijing Institute of Acoustics | And 2 more authors.
Chuan Bo Li Xue/Journal of Ship Mechanics | Year: 2012

Development of the deep manned submersible, "JIAOLONG", is one of the key projects of the national "863" high technology program. Its target is to build a practical product to carry out the predefined missions. Sea trial is the last stage of the development program with higher risks. In the periods from August to October 2009, from May to July 2010 and from July to August 2011, the 1000 m, 3000 m and 5000 m depth class tests were successfully finished respectively. Main purpose of this paper is to introduce the results of 7000 m depth class test which was just carried out from June 3 to July 16, 2012 and successfully completed. The contents include a description of basic information on the sea trials, technological and scientific achievements made in the tests, main faults in operation and dispose measure and their implications to future application. Finally, some conclusions are drawn from this sea trial.


Cui W.,China Ship Scientific Research Center | Liu F.,China Ocean Mineral Resources R and D Association | Hu Z.,China Ship Scientific Research Center | Zhu M.,CAS Beijing Institute of Acoustics | And 2 more authors.
Marine Technology Society Journal | Year: 2013

Development of the deep manned submersible Jiaolong was one of the key projects of the National 863 high-tech program. The program's target was to build a practical product to carry out a set of predefinedmissions. The 7,000msea trial was the last stage of the development process, a final phase that incorporated higher risks. During the preceding periods from August 6 to October 20, 2009, May 31 to July 18, 2010, and July 1 to August 18, 2011, the 1,000, 3,000, and 5,000mdepth class tests were successfully completed. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the results of the 7,000 m depth class test, which was conducted from June 3 to July 16, 2012. The paper describes the general sea trial procedures, and technological and scientific achievements realized during the tests, main faults experienced in the field, along with corresponding troubleshooting methods and suggestions for future application of the Jiaolong submersible. In addition, several conclusions are drawn from all the experiences gained from these sea trials.


Liu Z.-H.,Wuhan University | Chen R.,Wuhan Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources | Song C.-B.,China Ocean Mineral Resources R and D Association | Li S.-T.,China University of Geosciences
Diqiu Kexue - Zhongguo Dizhi Daxue Xuebao/Earth Science - Journal of China University of Geosciences | Year: 2012

Carboniferous Karashayi Formation of Tarim basin formed in the continental shelf environment, is composed of several sedimentary assemblages of clastic rocks, carbonate rocks and gypsum rocks. It is one of the important reservoir combination in the Tarim basin. According to the research results of paleontology, the formation can be approximately correlated with the Visean and Serpukhovian Stage of the International Stratigraphic Chart, about ±27 Ma. Currently, the research of sequence stratigraphy on Karashayi Formation is relatively weak. Due to lack of obvious discontinuity surfaces, a limited number of studies have been divided the formation into 3-4 third-order sequences, which leads to a conflict as to the time limits ±27 Ma. In this paper, the cyclostratigraphy was carried on well logs GR (Natural Gamma-Ray Log), SP (Spontaneous Potential Log), U, Th, K, etc. of Karashayi Formation with spectral analysis and wavelet analysis methods. Integrated with core observation and sedimentary base level study, 9-11 third-order sequences were identified in Karashayi Formation of Well Mai6, Zhong1, Zhong17 and Shun6. The average time duration of each cycle is about 2.40 Ma. This value corresponds to the intersection astronomical period of the three Earth orbital parameters. Not only do the results reflect the application value of the method, but also reflect that the climatic cycles are the controlling factors on the development of third-order sequences.


He G.,Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey | Ma W.,State Oceanic Administration | Song C.,China Ocean Mineral Resources R and D Association | Yang S.,Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey | And 4 more authors.
Acta Oceanologica Sinica | Year: 2011

In 2001, the International Seabed Authority (ISBA) initiated the consideration relating to the Regulations for Prospecting and Exploration for Hydrothermal Polymetallic Sulphides and Cobalt-rich Ferromanganese Crusts in the Area at its 7th session. Since then, the consideration of the Regulations has been mainly focused on the size of areas to be allocated for exploration and exploitation of the crusts. This paper, based on the investigation data and the analysis of the distribution characteristics of the crusts, suggests a model for determining the size of areas for exploration and exploitation of the crusts, taking into account various factors such as production scale, crust thickness and grade, mineable area proportion, recovery efficiency, exploration venture, and so on. Through the modeling, the paper suggests that the exploration area (the area covered by each application for approval of a plan of work for exploration of cobalt-rich crusts) shall be 4 856 km 2 and the exploitation area (the mine site area) shall be 1 214 km 2, for 20 years of 1 million wet tonnes annual production. © 2011 The Chinese Society of Oceanography and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Li X.-Y.,China Ocean Mineral Resources R and D Association | Liu F.,China Ocean Mineral Resources R and D Association
Zhongnan Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal of Central South University (Science and Technology) | Year: 2011

The development of the manned submersible JIAOLONG and the organization of its sea trials are introduced emphasized on the organizing keystones in each stage. Some constructive proposals are brought forward to the future organization of the development of large-scaled deep sea facilities in China.


Zhu Y.-L.,State Oceanic Administration | Gu C.-H.,State Oceanic Administration | Gao W.,China Ocean Mineral Resources R and D Association
Zhongnan Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal of Central South University (Science and Technology) | Year: 2011

Based on the fact that the lab and survey equipments of the present scientific research vessels is late, the required capacity building for the future deep sea integrated scientific research vessels was proposed from the marine science perspective according to the author's multi-years involved experience on deep sea scientific research. This paper raises the four capacity building systems as follows: the detection system of atmosphere, the detection system of water body, the detection system of sea bottom and sampling, and the auxiliary system, which including the lab and survey equipments, and provides the reference for the future deep sea integrated scientific research vessels.

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