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Yang Z.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Huffman S.L.,University of California at Davis
Maternal and Child Nutrition | Year: 2013

Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (<2500g). Low birthweight was associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome and central obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding and obesity may differ in developing countries compared to developed countries because many studies in developed countries used formula feeding as a control. Future research on the relationship between breastfeeding, timely introduction of complementary feeding or rapid weight gain and obesity are warranted in developing countries. The focus of interventions to reduce risk of obesity in later life in developing countries could include: improving maternal nutritional status during pregnancy to reduce low birthweight; enhancing breastfeeding (including durations of exclusive and total breastfeeding); timely introduction of high-quality complementary foods (containing micronutrients and essential fats) but not excessive in protein; further evidence is needed to understand the extent of weight gain and length gain during early childhood are related to body composition in later life. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Zhang B.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Zhai F.Y.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Zhai F.Y.,Public Health Nutrition | Du S.F.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Popkin B.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2014

Summary: The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) began in 1989 with the goal of creating a multilevel method of data collection from individuals and households and their communities to understand how the wide-ranging social and economic changes in China affect a wide array of nutrition and health-related outcomes. Initiated with a partial sample in 1989, the full survey runs from 1991 to 2011, and this issue documents the CHNS history. The CHNS cohort includes new household formation and replacement communities and households; all household members are studied. Furthermore, in-depth community data are collected. The sample began with eight provinces and added a ninth, Heilongjiang, in 1997 and three autonomous cities, Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing, in 2011. The in-depth community contextual measures have allowed us to create a unique measure of urbanicity that captures major dimensions of modernization across all 288 communities currently in the CHNS sample. The standardized, validated urbanicity measure captures the changes in 12 dimensions: population density; economic activity; traditional markets; modern markets; transportation infrastructure; sanitation; communications; housing; education; diversity; health infrastructure; and social services. Each is based on numerous measures applicable to each dimension. They are used jointly and separately in hundreds of studies. © 2014 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

Gordon-Larsen P.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Wang H.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Popkin B.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2014

Summary: China has experienced a transition from a history of undernutrition to a rapid increase in obesity. The China Health and Nutrition Survey, an ongoing longitudinal, household-based survey of urban and rural residents of nine provinces, documents these changes using measured height and weight across 53,298 observations from 18,059 participants collected from 1991 to 2011. Adult overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25kg/m2) prevalence nearly tripled from 1991 (11.7%) to 2009 (29.2%), with significant cohort and age-related effects (stronger in males). Among youth, quantile regression reveals changes across the BMI distribution. By 2009, approximately 12% of children and adolescents were overweight, and 3% of 7-11-year-olds and 1% of 12-17-year-olds were obese (International Obesity Taskforce BMI 25 and 30kg/m2 equivalents, respectively). In 1991-2000, urbanicity was strongly and positively associated with BMI, but in 2000-2011, trends were similar across rural and urban areas. Among women, the burden has shifted to lower educated women (the reverse is true for males, as overweight was higher in men of higher education). Our findings highlight the importance of preventive measures early in the life cycle to reduce weight gain. © 2014 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

Wang H.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Zhai F.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2013

Summary: By 2002, China's prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 and 2.9%, respectively. The replacement of traditional Chinese diet with 'Western diet', major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity are cited as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, which bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programmes have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curbing the trend towards overweight and obesity in China. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

Li F.Q.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2011

To elucidate the natural occurrence of masked deoxynivalenol (DON-3-G) and other multi-mycotoxins in cereals from parts of China. A total of 446 corn and wheat samples harvested in 2007 and 2008 collected from Henan, Hebei, Guangxi, Anhui, Sichuan, Chongqing and Jiangsu provinces were analyzed for DON-3-G and other multi-mycotoxins (including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), nivalenol (NIV), et al) by UPLC-MS/MS. Corn and wheat samples were mainly contaminated by DON and its derivatives as well as ZEN.88% (169/192) of wheat samples were positive for DON (range: 1.5 - 590.7 μg/kg; median: 30.8 μg/kg); 22.9% (44/192) of wheat samples were contaminated with ZEN (range: 1.7 - 3425.0 μg/kg; median: 8.0 μg/kg) and six samples contained ZEN concentration higher than the ZEN tolerance limit of 60 μg/kg. DON was detected in 50.5% (103/204) corn samples (range: 1.6 - 4374.4 μg/kg; median: 94.9 μg/kg); Seven samples contained DON exceeding the tolerance limit of 1000 μg/kg for DON. Additionally, ZEN was found in 41.7% (85/204) corn samples with the concentration between 1.6 μg/kg and 4808.7 μg/kg (median: 48.5 μg/kg) and there were 37 corn samples with ZEN level in the excess of tolerance limit for ZEN (60 μg/kg). DON-3-G was detected in corn and wheat samples for the first time in China with the median level of 21.4 μg/kg and 34.6 μg/kg for wheat and corn, respectively. Wheat was more heavily contaminated with DON-3-G than both 3-acetyl-DON (3-A-DON, median: 4.1 μg/kg) and 15-acetyl-DON (15-A-DON, median: 3.1 μg/kg) (t values were 5.111 and 5.966, respectively, both P values < 0.01). While, the level of 15-A-DON (median: 48.6 μg/kg) in corn was higher than 3-A-DON (median: 6.8 μg/kg) (t = -3.579, P < 0.01). The concentration of DON, DON-3-G, 3-A-DON, 15-A-DON and ZEN in corn were higher than that in wheat (Z values were -3.492, -1.960, -2.467, -8.711 and -6.272, respectively, all P values < 0.05). Wheat (median: 29.0 μg/kg) contained higher NIV in comparison with corn (median: 18.2 μg/kg, Z = -2.086, P < 0.05). Wheat and corn samples from parts of China were contaminated with multi-mycotoxins and DON was the predominant;in comparison of wheat, corn was more heavily contaminated with DON, DON-3-G, 3-A-DON, 15-A-DON and ZEN.

Yang Z.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety
Food and nutrition bulletin | Year: 2013

Vitamin D is vital for bone health and has important roles in nonskeletal health and organ function. Most vitamin D is generated in the body by exposure to sunlight, with limited amounts added by the diet. Despite the presence of regular sunshine in Southeast Asia, vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is being found there more commonly, primarily due to reduction of sunlight exposure as a result of lifestyle changes. Some of these lifestyle changes are unlikely to be reversed, and foods naturally containing vitamin D are not widely consumed, so fortification of foods with vitamin D may raise vitamin D status. The literature database was searched for studies of vitamin D fortification, and we estimated potential vitamin D intakes from fortified vegetable oil. Almost all of the studies showed that circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [(25OHD]) increased in a dose-dependent manner with increased intake of vitamin D-fortified foods. However, in a number of studies the additional intake was insufficient to increase vitamin D levels to 50 nmol/L. Vegetable oil fortified with vitamin D at a level of 10 microg/100 g could provide 3.9% to 21% of the Institute of Medicine Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of vitamin D for adults in Southeast Asia. Fortification of widely consumed foods, such as edible oil, with vitamin D could contribute to improved vitamin D status in Southeast Asian countries. Intake modeling studies should be conducted to calculate the resulting additional intakes, and fortification of additional foods should be considered. More nationally representative studies of vitamin D status in the region are urgently needed.

Meng L.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety
PloS one | Year: 2013

The dramatic rise of overweight and obesity among Chinese children has greatly affected the social economic development. However, no information on the cost-effectiveness of interventions in China is available. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost and the cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention program for childhood obesity. We hypothesized the integrated intervention which combined nutrition education and physical activity (PA) is more cost-effective than the same intensity of single intervention. And Findings: A multi-center randomized controlled trial conducted in six large cities during 2009-2010. A total of 8301 primary school students were categorized into five groups and followed one academic year. Nutrition intervention, PA intervention and their shared common control group were located in Beijing. The combined intervention and its' control group were located in other 5 cities. In nutrition education group, 'nutrition and health classes' were given 6 times for the students, 2 times for the parents and 4 times for the teachers and health workers. "Happy 10" was carried out twice per day in PA group. The comprehensive intervention was a combination of nutrition and PA interventions. BMI and BAZ increment was 0.65 kg/m(2) (SE 0.09) and 0.01 (SE 0.11) in the combined intervention, respectively, significantly lower than that in its' control group (0.82 ± 0.09 for BMI, 0.10 ± 0.11 for BAZ). No significant difference were found neither in BMI nor in BAZ change between the PA intervention and its' control, which is the same case in the nutrition intervention. The single intervention has a relative lower intervention costs compared with the combined intervention. Labor costs in Guangzhou, Shanghai and Jinan was higher compared to other cities. The cost-effectiveness ratio was $120.3 for BMI and $249.3 for BAZ in combined intervention, respectively. The school-based integrated obesity intervention program was cost-effectiveness for children in urban China. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-PRC-09000402 URL:http://www.chictr.org/cn/

Chen Y.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety
Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research | Year: 2010

To study the epidemiological characteristics of foodborne disease outbreaks in China in 2006. The foodborne diseases data collected by the National Foodborne Disease Surveillance Network in 2006 were analyzed. There were 594 outbreaks of foodborne disease reported from 18 provinces in 2006, which caused illness in 13849 persons and death in 67. Among outbreaks for which the etiology was determined, microbial pathogens caused the largest percentage of outbreaks (48.3%) and the largest percentage of cases (63.3%), chemical agents, 24.8% of outbreaks and 15.5% of cases, and animal and plant agents, 23.5% of outbreaks and 17.7% of cases. As discovered by the National Foodborne Disease Surveillance Network, microbial foodborne disease remains a major public health problem in China, and the awareness to report foodborne disease incidents need to be intensified in the future.

Chen J.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

This is a review article telling a 50-years old story about the studies on selenium deficiency and Keshan disease in China, an endemic heart disease with high case-fatality, as an example of translational research. Extensive cross-sectional epidemiological studies showed that low selenium concentrations in cereal grains and low selenium status of local residents were associated with the occurrence of Keshan disease. Several large populationbased intervention trials using oral administration of sodium selenite tablets showed significant reduction of Keshan disease incidence. Based on the above evidence, it was concluded that selenium deficiency is the major cause of Keshan disease, although other etiological factors could not be ruled out. The implications of the findings include: provided critical scientific evidence for selenium being an essential trace element for humans; as scientific basis for identifying minimum requirement and RDA/RNI for selenium; and as solid reference for the formulation of effective preventive measures for Keshan disease in China.

Zhang S.-Q.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Icaritin (ICT) is a major bioactive prenylflavonoid derivative contained in the Epimedium which is a widely used herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility, impotence, cardiovascular and skeletal diseases listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The aim of this study is to investigate the tissue distribution of ICT in rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) Materials and methods ICT was intraperitoneally administrated to rats for 7 consecutive days at dose levels of 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg/day, respectively. Various tissue homogenates were pretreated by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. ICT and internal standard coumestrol were separated on a BEH C18 column with a gradient mobile phase and detected using precursor-product ion transitions of m/z 367.1→297.1 for ICT and 267.0→211.1 for coumestrol at the negative ionization mode, respectively. Results ICT was widely distributed in rats various tissues and its concentrations in tissues increased with elevated doses. A sensitive and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method was firstly established to quantify ICT in rat tissues. The lower limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/mL based on 100 μL of tissue homogenates. The intra- and inter-day accuracy at all levels fell in the ranges of 90.8-103.4% and 91.6-100.3%, and the intra- and inter-day precision (RSD) were in the ranges of 2.9-10.5% and 2.6-9.1%, respectively. Conclusions The UPLC-MS/MS showed good accuracy, precision and recovery and was suitable for the quantification of ICT in rat tissues. Wide distribution of ICT could helpfully elucidate systemic effects and various functions of ICT. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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