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Gordon-Larsen P.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Wang H.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Popkin B.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2014

Summary: China has experienced a transition from a history of undernutrition to a rapid increase in obesity. The China Health and Nutrition Survey, an ongoing longitudinal, household-based survey of urban and rural residents of nine provinces, documents these changes using measured height and weight across 53,298 observations from 18,059 participants collected from 1991 to 2011. Adult overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25kg/m2) prevalence nearly tripled from 1991 (11.7%) to 2009 (29.2%), with significant cohort and age-related effects (stronger in males). Among youth, quantile regression reveals changes across the BMI distribution. By 2009, approximately 12% of children and adolescents were overweight, and 3% of 7-11-year-olds and 1% of 12-17-year-olds were obese (International Obesity Taskforce BMI 25 and 30kg/m2 equivalents, respectively). In 1991-2000, urbanicity was strongly and positively associated with BMI, but in 2000-2011, trends were similar across rural and urban areas. Among women, the burden has shifted to lower educated women (the reverse is true for males, as overweight was higher in men of higher education). Our findings highlight the importance of preventive measures early in the life cycle to reduce weight gain. © 2014 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

Chen Y.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety
Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research | Year: 2010

To study the epidemiological characteristics of foodborne disease outbreaks in China in 2006. The foodborne diseases data collected by the National Foodborne Disease Surveillance Network in 2006 were analyzed. There were 594 outbreaks of foodborne disease reported from 18 provinces in 2006, which caused illness in 13849 persons and death in 67. Among outbreaks for which the etiology was determined, microbial pathogens caused the largest percentage of outbreaks (48.3%) and the largest percentage of cases (63.3%), chemical agents, 24.8% of outbreaks and 15.5% of cases, and animal and plant agents, 23.5% of outbreaks and 17.7% of cases. As discovered by the National Foodborne Disease Surveillance Network, microbial foodborne disease remains a major public health problem in China, and the awareness to report foodborne disease incidents need to be intensified in the future.

Yang Z.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety
Food and nutrition bulletin | Year: 2013

Vitamin D is vital for bone health and has important roles in nonskeletal health and organ function. Most vitamin D is generated in the body by exposure to sunlight, with limited amounts added by the diet. Despite the presence of regular sunshine in Southeast Asia, vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is being found there more commonly, primarily due to reduction of sunlight exposure as a result of lifestyle changes. Some of these lifestyle changes are unlikely to be reversed, and foods naturally containing vitamin D are not widely consumed, so fortification of foods with vitamin D may raise vitamin D status. The literature database was searched for studies of vitamin D fortification, and we estimated potential vitamin D intakes from fortified vegetable oil. Almost all of the studies showed that circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [(25OHD]) increased in a dose-dependent manner with increased intake of vitamin D-fortified foods. However, in a number of studies the additional intake was insufficient to increase vitamin D levels to 50 nmol/L. Vegetable oil fortified with vitamin D at a level of 10 microg/100 g could provide 3.9% to 21% of the Institute of Medicine Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of vitamin D for adults in Southeast Asia. Fortification of widely consumed foods, such as edible oil, with vitamin D could contribute to improved vitamin D status in Southeast Asian countries. Intake modeling studies should be conducted to calculate the resulting additional intakes, and fortification of additional foods should be considered. More nationally representative studies of vitamin D status in the region are urgently needed.

Meng L.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety
PloS one | Year: 2013

The dramatic rise of overweight and obesity among Chinese children has greatly affected the social economic development. However, no information on the cost-effectiveness of interventions in China is available. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost and the cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention program for childhood obesity. We hypothesized the integrated intervention which combined nutrition education and physical activity (PA) is more cost-effective than the same intensity of single intervention. And Findings: A multi-center randomized controlled trial conducted in six large cities during 2009-2010. A total of 8301 primary school students were categorized into five groups and followed one academic year. Nutrition intervention, PA intervention and their shared common control group were located in Beijing. The combined intervention and its' control group were located in other 5 cities. In nutrition education group, 'nutrition and health classes' were given 6 times for the students, 2 times for the parents and 4 times for the teachers and health workers. "Happy 10" was carried out twice per day in PA group. The comprehensive intervention was a combination of nutrition and PA interventions. BMI and BAZ increment was 0.65 kg/m(2) (SE 0.09) and 0.01 (SE 0.11) in the combined intervention, respectively, significantly lower than that in its' control group (0.82 ± 0.09 for BMI, 0.10 ± 0.11 for BAZ). No significant difference were found neither in BMI nor in BAZ change between the PA intervention and its' control, which is the same case in the nutrition intervention. The single intervention has a relative lower intervention costs compared with the combined intervention. Labor costs in Guangzhou, Shanghai and Jinan was higher compared to other cities. The cost-effectiveness ratio was $120.3 for BMI and $249.3 for BAZ in combined intervention, respectively. The school-based integrated obesity intervention program was cost-effectiveness for children in urban China. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-PRC-09000402 URL:http://www.chictr.org/cn/

Zhang S.-Q.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Icaritin (ICT) is a major bioactive prenylflavonoid derivative contained in the Epimedium which is a widely used herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility, impotence, cardiovascular and skeletal diseases listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The aim of this study is to investigate the tissue distribution of ICT in rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) Materials and methods ICT was intraperitoneally administrated to rats for 7 consecutive days at dose levels of 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg/day, respectively. Various tissue homogenates were pretreated by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. ICT and internal standard coumestrol were separated on a BEH C18 column with a gradient mobile phase and detected using precursor-product ion transitions of m/z 367.1→297.1 for ICT and 267.0→211.1 for coumestrol at the negative ionization mode, respectively. Results ICT was widely distributed in rats various tissues and its concentrations in tissues increased with elevated doses. A sensitive and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method was firstly established to quantify ICT in rat tissues. The lower limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/mL based on 100 μL of tissue homogenates. The intra- and inter-day accuracy at all levels fell in the ranges of 90.8-103.4% and 91.6-100.3%, and the intra- and inter-day precision (RSD) were in the ranges of 2.9-10.5% and 2.6-9.1%, respectively. Conclusions The UPLC-MS/MS showed good accuracy, precision and recovery and was suitable for the quantification of ICT in rat tissues. Wide distribution of ICT could helpfully elucidate systemic effects and various functions of ICT. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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