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Parks M.,Griffith University | Subramanian S.,Griffith University | Baroni C.,University of Pisa | Salvatore M.C.,University of Pisa | And 4 more authors.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

Recently, the study of ancient DNA (aDNA) has been greatly enhanced by the development of second-generation DNA sequencing technologies and targeted enrichment strategies. These developments have allowed the recovery of several complete ancient genomes, a result that would have been considered virtually impossible only a decade ago. Prior to these developments, aDNA research was largely focused on the recovery of short DNA sequences and their use in the study of phylogenetic relationships, molecular rates, species identification and population structure. However, it is now possible to sequence a large number of modern and ancient complete genomes from a single species and thereby study the genomic patterns of evolutionary change over time. Such a study would herald the beginnings of ancient population genomics and its use in the study of evolution. Species that are amenable to such large-scale studies warrant increased research effort. We report here progress on a population genomic study of the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). This species is ideally suited to ancient population genomic research because both modern and ancient samples are abundant in the permafrost conditions of Antarctica. This species will enable us to directly address many of the fundamental questions in ecology and evolution. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

Wang M.-S.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Wang M.-S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Li Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 24 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution

Much like other indigenous domesticated animals, Tibetan chickens living at high altitudes (2,200-4,100 m) show specific physiological adaptations to the extreme environmental conditions of the Tibetan Plateau, but the genetic bases of these adaptations are not well characterized. Here, we assembled a de novo genome of a Tibetan chicken and resequenced whole genomes of 32 additional chickens, including Tibetan chickens, village chickens, game fowl, and Red Junglefowl, and found that the Tibetan chickens could broadly be placed into two groups. Further analyses revealed that several candidate genes in the calcium-signaling pathway are possibly involved in adaptation to the hypoxia experienced by these chickens, as these genes appear to have experienced directional selection in the two Tibetan chicken populations, suggesting a potential genetic mechanism underlying high altitude adaptation in Tibetan chickens. The candidate selected genes identified in this study, and their variants, may be useful targets for clarifying our understanding of the domestication of chickens in Tibet, and might be useful in current breeding efforts to develop improved breeds for the highlands. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. Source

Chen L.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Tang L.,Wuhan University | Xiang H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jin L.,China National Genebank Shenzhen | And 5 more authors.

Genetic modification has long provided an approach for " reverse genetics" , analyzing gene function and linking DNA sequence to phenotype. However, traditional genome editing technologies have not kept pace with the soaring progress of the genome sequencing era, as a result of their inefficiency, time-consuming and labor-intensive methods. Recently, invented genome modification technologies, such as ZFN (Zinc Finger Nuclease), TALEN (Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease), and CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9 nuclease) can initiate genome editing easily, precisely and with no limitations by organism. These new tools have also offered intriguing possibilities for conducting functional large-scale experiments. In this review, we begin with a brief introduction of ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 technologies, then generate an extensive prediction of effective TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 target sites in the genomes of a broad range of taxonomic species. Based on the evidence, we highlight the potential and practicalities of TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 editing in non-model organisms, and also compare the technologies and test interesting issues such as the functions of candidate domesticated, as well as candidate genes in life-environment interactions. When accompanied with a high-throughput sequencing platform, we forecast their potential revolutionary impacts on evolutionary and ecological research, which may offer an exciting prospect for connecting the gap between DNA sequence and phenotype in the near future. © 2014 Chen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Yan L.,Jilin University | Yan L.,Puer Institute Of Pu Er Tea | Wang X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Liu H.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | And 20 more authors.
Molecular Plant

Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is a traditional Chinese orchid herb that has both ornamental value and a broad range of therapeutic effects. Here, we report the first de novo assembled 1.35 Gb genome sequences for D. officinale by combining the second-generation Illumina Hiseq 2000 and third-generation PacBio sequencing technologies. We found that orchids have a complete inflorescence gene set and have some specific inflorescence genes. We observed gene expansion in gene families related to fungus symbiosis and drought resistance. We analyzed biosynthesis pathways of medicinal components of D. officinale and found extensive duplication of SPS and SuSy genes, which are related to polysaccharide generation, and that the pathway of D. officinale alkaloid synthesis could be extended to generate 16-epivellosimine. The D. officinale genome assembly demonstrates a new approach to deciphering large complex genomes and, as an important orchid species and a traditional Chinese medicine, the D. officinale genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of orchid plants, as well as the study of medicinal components and potential genetic breeding of the dendrobe. © 2015 The Author. Source

Liu S.,China National Genebank Shenzhen | Liu S.,Copenhagen University | Wang X.,China National Genebank Shenzhen | Xie L.,BGI Shenzhen | And 11 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources

Biodiversity analyses based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms have developed by leaps and bounds in recent years. A PCR-free strategy, which can alleviate taxonomic bias, was considered as a promising approach to delivering reliable species compositions of targeted environments. The major impediment of such a method is the lack of appropriate mitochondrial DNA enrichment ways. Because mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) make up only a small proportion of total DNA, PCR-free methods will inevitably result in a huge excess of data (>99%). Furthermore, the massive volume of sequence data is highly demanding on computing resources. Here, we present a mitogenome enrichment pipeline via a gene capture chip that was designed by virtue of the mitogenome sequences of the 1000 Insect Transcriptome Evolution project (1KITE, www.1kite.org). A mock sample containing 49 species was used to evaluate the efficiency of the mitogenome capture method. We demonstrate that the proportion of mitochondrial DNA can be increased by approximately 100-fold (from the original 0.47% to 42.52%). Variation in phylogenetic distances of target taxa to the probe set could in principle result in bias in abundance. However, the frequencies of input taxa were largely maintained after capture (R2 = 0.81). We suggest that our mitogenome capture approach coupled with PCR-free shotgun sequencing could provide ecological researchers an efficient NGS method to deliver reliable biodiversity assessment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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