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Chang D.,Renmin University of China | Ma Z.,Renmin University of China | Wang X.,China National Environmental Monitoring Center
Environmental Science and Policy

As integral parts of wastewater reclamation and reuse policy (WRRP) frameworks, policy objectives, price instrument, administrative orders and penalty for violations are analyzed in the comparative research on detailed policies across levels and areas of China. Northern cities have formed more integral WRRP frameworks than other ones. Stepwise Regression Analysis(SRA) technique is adopted to evaluate the linkages between influencing factors and wastewater reclamation and reuse levels among 11 sampled cities of China. It is found that policy factor other than water scarcity or economic factor exerts effective impacts on China's wastewater reclamation and reuse, and the overall strategy is encouraging. Decentralized water management fails to integrate reclaimed wastewater into water resource allocation systems, and the efficiency of reclaimed wastewater can hardly be achieved. The applicability of reclaimed wastewater is differentiated for various water users, with the obstacles coming from formidable investments and worry about health risks. At the beginning stage of wastewater reclamation and reuse in China, administrative orders are likely to be more effective than pricing instrument, only if they are specified and rigid enough. In spite of the comparative advantages of administrative orders, municipal governments tend to favor the establishment of efficient reclaimed wastewater markets. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Li X.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Li Y.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Zhang Q.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Wang P.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 3 more authors.

The concern about emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from steel industrial parks has increased in the past decades. In this study, polyurethane foam (PUF)-disk based passive air samples were collected in and around a big steel industrial park of Anshan, Northeast China from June 2008 to March 2009. The levels, seasonal variations and potential sources of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in the atmosphere around the steel industrial complex were investigated, and potential contribution of these three groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from iron and steel production was also assessed. The air concentrations of ∑17PCDD/Fs (summer: 0.02-2.77pgm-3; winter: 0.20-9.79pgm-3), ∑19PCBs (summer: 23.5-155.8pgm-3; winter: 14.6-81.3pgm-3) and ∑13PBDEs (summer: 2.91-10.7pgm-3; winter: 1.10-3.89pgm-3) in this targeted industrial park were relatively low in comparison to other studies, which implied that the industrial activities of iron and steel had not resulted in serious contamination to the ambient air in this area. On the whole, the air concentrations of PCDD/Fs in winter were higher than those of summer, whereas the concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs showed opposite trends. The result from principal component analysis indicated that coal combustion might be the main contributor of PCDD/F sources in this area. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hosgood H.D.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Wei H.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Wei H.,China National Environmental Monitoring Center | Sapkota A.,University of Maryland College Park | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology

Background Emissions from household coal combustion associated with cooking and heating are an important public health issue, particularly in China where hundreds of millions of people are exposed. Although coal emissions are a known human carcinogen, there is still uncertainty about the level of risk for lung and other cancers.Methods We performed a meta-analysis on 25 case-control studies (10 142 cases and 13 416 controls) to summarize the association between household coal use and lung cancer risk, and to explore the effect modification of this association by geographical location.Results Using random-effects models, household coal use was found to be associated with lung cancer risk among all studies throughout the world [odds ratio (OR) = 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.61-2.89, N studies = 25], and particularly among those studies carried out in mainland China and Taiwan (OR = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.65-3.12, N studies = 20). Stratification by regions of mainland China and Taiwan found a variation in effects across the regions, with south/southeastern (OR = 3.27; 95% CI = 1.27-8.42, N studies = 3) and southwestern China (OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.18-7.53, N studies = 3) experiencing the highest risk. The elevated risk associated with coal use throughout Asia was also observed when stratifying studies by gender, smoking status, sample size, design (population vs hospital case-control) and publication language. No significant publication bias was found (p Begg's = 0.15).Conclusions Our results provide evidence that although the carcinogenic effect of coal use varies by location, coals from many locations exhibit elevated lung cancer risks. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association 2011. Source

Huang J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology | Gao J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology | Liu J.,Beijing Institute of Water | Zhang Y.,China National Environmental Monitoring Center
Ecological Modelling

Kalman filter has been successfully used in assimilating observations into the existing models, and has been continually adjusted for its wider use. In this study, one of the Kalman filter techniques (ensemble Kalman filter) was used to assimilate measured data into a spatial hydrodynamic-phytoplankton model for predicting dynamics of phytoplankton biomass in Lake Taihu. In order to investigate the effects of the initial conditions (chlorophyll a) and the model parameter on the model fit, we carried out three simulations with different update strategies of parameter and variable using ensemble Kalman filter. Two simulations updated both of model parameter and state variable once and twice a week, respectively. Another simulation updated the state variable once a week, respectively. The simulation results show that the model fit was improved when the state variable (chlorophyll a) was updated by measured data in a shorter term, and was slightly improved with time-varying parameter. In this respect, good estimates of initial chlorophyll a conditions are critical to achieve good predictions of chlorophyll a dynamics in Lake Taihu. This study demonstrates the success of the ensemble Kalman filter technique in improving models' predictive skill, and implementing time-varying parameters for ecological models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Zheng X.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Zheng X.,China National Environmental Monitoring Center | Liu X.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Jiang G.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Pollution

Surface soils were collected in Balang Mountain to explore the environmental process of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) during air transport. The average concentrations of ∑ 25PCBs and ∑ 13PBDEs in soils were 163 pg/g and 26 pg/g, respectively. The significant correlations between the concentrations of pollutants and total organic carbon (TOC) indicated the importance of TOC in accumulation potential of POPs. The slopes from fitted curves of PCBs were highly related with logK oa, demonstrating that TOC dominates the soil-air exchange of PCBs. The TOC-normalized concentrations of contaminants in samples from below-treeline were higher than those from alpine meadow, probably due to the forest filter effect. The increasing trends of the concentrations with altitude from the alpine meadow samples, could be attributed to the mountain cold-trapping effect. And the weak cold-trapping effect of POPs might be due to the less precipitation in 2008 when comparing with those in 2006. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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