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Hosgood H.D.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Wei H.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Wei H.,China National Environmental Monitoring Center | Sapkota A.,University of Maryland College Park | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Background Emissions from household coal combustion associated with cooking and heating are an important public health issue, particularly in China where hundreds of millions of people are exposed. Although coal emissions are a known human carcinogen, there is still uncertainty about the level of risk for lung and other cancers.Methods We performed a meta-analysis on 25 case-control studies (10 142 cases and 13 416 controls) to summarize the association between household coal use and lung cancer risk, and to explore the effect modification of this association by geographical location.Results Using random-effects models, household coal use was found to be associated with lung cancer risk among all studies throughout the world [odds ratio (OR) = 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.61-2.89, N studies = 25], and particularly among those studies carried out in mainland China and Taiwan (OR = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.65-3.12, N studies = 20). Stratification by regions of mainland China and Taiwan found a variation in effects across the regions, with south/southeastern (OR = 3.27; 95% CI = 1.27-8.42, N studies = 3) and southwestern China (OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.18-7.53, N studies = 3) experiencing the highest risk. The elevated risk associated with coal use throughout Asia was also observed when stratifying studies by gender, smoking status, sample size, design (population vs hospital case-control) and publication language. No significant publication bias was found (p Begg's = 0.15).Conclusions Our results provide evidence that although the carcinogenic effect of coal use varies by location, coals from many locations exhibit elevated lung cancer risks. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association 2011.

Xing G.H.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Xing G.H.,China National Environmental Monitoring Center | Liang Y.,Luqiao Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Chen L.X.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

Air samples containing gaseous and particulate phases were collected from e-waste workplaces and residential areas of an intensive e-waste recycling area and compared with a reference site. The highest total concentration of PCBs was detected at transformer recycling workshops (17.6ngm-3), followed by the residential area (3.37ngm-3) at Taizhou, and the lowest was obtained at the residential area of the reference site, Lin'an (0.46ngm-3). The same trend was also observed with regards to PCB levels in dust samples. The highest average PCBs level of 2824ngg-1 (dry wt) was found in the transformer recycling workshops, and was significantly higher than that of residential areas of Taizhou (572ngg-1 dry wt) and Lin'an (42.4ngg-1 dry wt). WHO-PCB-TEQ level in the workshops of Taizhou was 2216pg TEQ1998g-1 dry wt or 2159pg TEQ2005g-1 dry wt, due to the high abundance of PCB 126 (21.5ngg-1 dry wt), which contributed 97% or 99% of WHO-PCB-TEQs. The estimated intake of PCBs via dust ingestion and dermal absorption by transformer recycling workers were 77.5×10-5 and 36.0×10-5 pg WHO-PCB-TEQ1998kg-1d-1, and 67.3×10-5 and 31.3×10-5 pg WHO-PCB-TEQ2005kg-1d-1, respectively. © 2011.

Zheng X.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Zheng X.,China National Environmental Monitoring Center | Liu X.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Jiang G.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012

Surface soils were collected in Balang Mountain to explore the environmental process of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) during air transport. The average concentrations of ∑ 25PCBs and ∑ 13PBDEs in soils were 163 pg/g and 26 pg/g, respectively. The significant correlations between the concentrations of pollutants and total organic carbon (TOC) indicated the importance of TOC in accumulation potential of POPs. The slopes from fitted curves of PCBs were highly related with logK oa, demonstrating that TOC dominates the soil-air exchange of PCBs. The TOC-normalized concentrations of contaminants in samples from below-treeline were higher than those from alpine meadow, probably due to the forest filter effect. The increasing trends of the concentrations with altitude from the alpine meadow samples, could be attributed to the mountain cold-trapping effect. And the weak cold-trapping effect of POPs might be due to the less precipitation in 2008 when comparing with those in 2006. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ma G.,China National Environmental Monitoring Center | Wang S.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

Based on the analysis of point source (PS) and non-point source (NPS) pollution emission characteristics of Dianchi Lake Basin, pollution load into the lake simulation models was constructed; the result should be useful for eutrophication researchers. The PS and NPS pollution load calculation results were added come exogenous pollution load into Dianchi Lake. Exogenous pollution load into Dianchi lake chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were 32876.86, 6571.64 and 429.37 t in 1990, respectively; were 33780.66, 10326.64 and 654.59 t in 2005, respectively; were 37717.00, 8597.01 and 546.48 t in 2012, respectively. Exogenous pollution load of Dianchi Lake temporal evolution and spatial distribution changing characteristics were analyzed that TN and TP pollution load were increased from 1990 to 2005, and they were decreased from 2005 to 2012, COD pollution load were increased in both periods. July or August was the most pollution load into the lake among months in 1990, 2005 and 2012. PS pollution was mainly concentrated in the northern area and the inside of Wuhua District and Guandu District. NPS COD pollution output increased was mainly the south of the northern area in Dianchi Lake Basin and reduced were mainly the north of the northern area, eastern area, western area and southern area; TN output of NPS increased in most regions, and only the central northern area had reduced regional distribution; TP output of NPS decreased mainly in the north of northern area, and increased in most other regions of the Basin from 1990 to 2012. The result should be meaningful to zoning control and classifying control of exogenous pollutants into the Lake. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Xie M.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Qiao Q.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Sun Q.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Zhang L.,China National Environmental Monitoring Center
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2013

Purpose: Approximately 46,000 t/day of packaging waste was generated in China in 2010, of which, 2,500 t was composite packaging waste. Due to the lack of recycling technology and an imperfect recovery system, most of this waste is processed in sanitary landfills. An effective packaging waste management system is needed since this waste not only uses up valuable resources, but also increases environmental pollution. The purpose of this study is to estimate the environmental impact of the treatment scenarios in composite packaging waste which are commonly used in China, to determine the optimum composite packaging waste management strategy, and to design new separating and recycling technology for composite packaging, based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) results. Methods: To identify the best treatment for composite packaging waste, the LCA software SimaPro 7.1.6 was used to assist in the analysis of the environmental impacts, coupled with the impact assessment method Eco-Indicator 99. LCA for composite packaging waste management was carried out by estimating the environmental impacts of the four scenarios most often used in China: landfill, incineration, paper recycling, and separation of polyethylene and aluminum. One ton of post-consumption Tetra Pak waste was selected as the functional unit. The data on the mass, energy fluxes, and environmental emissions were obtained from literature and site investigations. Results and discussion: Landfill - scenario 1 - was the worst waste management option. Paper recycling - scenario 3 - was more environmentally friendly than incineration, scenario 2. Scenario 4, separating out polyethylene and aluminum, was established based on the LCA result, and inventory data were obtained from the demonstration project built by this research. In scenario 4, the demonstration project for the separation of polyethylene and aluminum was built based on the optimum conditions from single-factor and orthogonal experiments. Adding this flow process into the life cycle of composite packaging waste treatment decreased the environmental impacts significantly. Conclusions: The research results can provide useful scientific information for policymakers in China to make decisions regarding composite packaging waste. Incineration could reduce more environmental impacts in the respiratory inorganics category, and separation of polyethylene and aluminum, in the fossil fuel category. If energy saving is the primary governmental goal, the separation of polyethylene and aluminum would be the better choice, while incineration would be the better choice for emission reduction. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Li X.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Li Y.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Zhang Q.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Wang P.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

The concern about emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from steel industrial parks has increased in the past decades. In this study, polyurethane foam (PUF)-disk based passive air samples were collected in and around a big steel industrial park of Anshan, Northeast China from June 2008 to March 2009. The levels, seasonal variations and potential sources of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in the atmosphere around the steel industrial complex were investigated, and potential contribution of these three groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from iron and steel production was also assessed. The air concentrations of ∑17PCDD/Fs (summer: 0.02-2.77pgm-3; winter: 0.20-9.79pgm-3), ∑19PCBs (summer: 23.5-155.8pgm-3; winter: 14.6-81.3pgm-3) and ∑13PBDEs (summer: 2.91-10.7pgm-3; winter: 1.10-3.89pgm-3) in this targeted industrial park were relatively low in comparison to other studies, which implied that the industrial activities of iron and steel had not resulted in serious contamination to the ambient air in this area. On the whole, the air concentrations of PCDD/Fs in winter were higher than those of summer, whereas the concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs showed opposite trends. The result from principal component analysis indicated that coal combustion might be the main contributor of PCDD/F sources in this area. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Lv A.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Zhou L.,China National Environmental Monitoring Center
Remote Sensing | Year: 2016

Accurate rainfall estimations based on ground-based rainfall observations and satellite-based rainfall measurements are essential for hydrological and environmental modeling in the Qaidam Basin of China. We evaluated the accuracy of daily and monthly scale Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall products in the Qaidam Basin. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to estimate the spatial distribution of the TRMM product error using altitude and geographical latitude and longitude as independent variables. Finally, a rainfall model was developed by combining ground-based and satellite-based rainfall measurements, and the model precision was validated with a cross-validation method based on rainfall gauge measurements. The TRMM precipitation observations may contain errors compared with the ground-measured precipitation, and the error for daily data was higher than that for monthly data. A time series of TRMM rainfall measurements at the same location showed errors at certain time intervals. The ground-based and satellite-based rainfall GWR model improved the error in the TRMM rainfall products. This rainfall estimation model with a 1-km spatial resolution is applicable in the Qaidam Basin in which there is a sparse network of rainfall gauges, and is significant for spatial investigations of hydrology and climate change. © 2016 by the authors.

Chang D.,Renmin University of China | Ma Z.,Renmin University of China | Wang X.,China National Environmental Monitoring Center
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2013

As integral parts of wastewater reclamation and reuse policy (WRRP) frameworks, policy objectives, price instrument, administrative orders and penalty for violations are analyzed in the comparative research on detailed policies across levels and areas of China. Northern cities have formed more integral WRRP frameworks than other ones. Stepwise Regression Analysis(SRA) technique is adopted to evaluate the linkages between influencing factors and wastewater reclamation and reuse levels among 11 sampled cities of China. It is found that policy factor other than water scarcity or economic factor exerts effective impacts on China's wastewater reclamation and reuse, and the overall strategy is encouraging. Decentralized water management fails to integrate reclaimed wastewater into water resource allocation systems, and the efficiency of reclaimed wastewater can hardly be achieved. The applicability of reclaimed wastewater is differentiated for various water users, with the obstacles coming from formidable investments and worry about health risks. At the beginning stage of wastewater reclamation and reuse in China, administrative orders are likely to be more effective than pricing instrument, only if they are specified and rigid enough. In spite of the comparative advantages of administrative orders, municipal governments tend to favor the establishment of efficient reclaimed wastewater markets. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Huang J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology | Gao J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology | Liu J.,Beijing Institute of Water | Zhang Y.,China National Environmental Monitoring Center
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2013

Kalman filter has been successfully used in assimilating observations into the existing models, and has been continually adjusted for its wider use. In this study, one of the Kalman filter techniques (ensemble Kalman filter) was used to assimilate measured data into a spatial hydrodynamic-phytoplankton model for predicting dynamics of phytoplankton biomass in Lake Taihu. In order to investigate the effects of the initial conditions (chlorophyll a) and the model parameter on the model fit, we carried out three simulations with different update strategies of parameter and variable using ensemble Kalman filter. Two simulations updated both of model parameter and state variable once and twice a week, respectively. Another simulation updated the state variable once a week, respectively. The simulation results show that the model fit was improved when the state variable (chlorophyll a) was updated by measured data in a shorter term, and was slightly improved with time-varying parameter. In this respect, good estimates of initial chlorophyll a conditions are critical to achieve good predictions of chlorophyll a dynamics in Lake Taihu. This study demonstrates the success of the ensemble Kalman filter technique in improving models' predictive skill, and implementing time-varying parameters for ecological models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Xing G.H.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Xing G.H.,China National Environmental Monitoring Center | Wu S.C.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Wong M.H.,Hong Kong Baptist University
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

The levels of PCBs in different types of food (fish, shellfish, meat, rice, vegetables, and fruits) were analyzed to determine the dietary intake of 37 PCBs for local residents and e-waste workers (all lactating mothers) at Taizhou (China), a major electronic waste scrapping center, in particular for recycling transformers. The exposure to PCBs through dietary intake in Taizhou was estimated at 92.79ngkg-1d-1, contributed by consumption of freshwater fish (28%), rice (28%), meat (17%), shellfish (9%), vegetables (8%), egg (4%) and marine fish (2%). With regards to WHO-PCB-TEQ values, freshwater fish (40%), shellfish (24%), duck liver (18%) and rice (12%) were the main dietary sources with total daily intake (9.78pgWHO-PCB-TEQkg-1d-1), exceeding the FAO/WHO Tolerable Daily Intake (70pgTEQkg-1body-1wt-1month-1). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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