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Hu Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tu J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yin Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Riemerella anatipestifer causes epizootics of infectious disease in poultry that result in serious economic losses to the duck industry. Our previous studies have shown that some strains of R. anatipestifer can form a biofilm, and this may explain the intriguing persistence of R. anatipestifer on duck farms post infection. In this study we used strain CH3, a strong producer of biofilm, to construct a library of random Tn4351 transposon mutants in order to investigate the genetic basis of biofilm formation by R. anatipestifer on abiotic surfaces. A total of 2,520 mutants were obtained and 39 of them showed a reduction in biofilm formation of 47%-98% using crystal violet staining. Genetic characterization of the mutants led to the identification of 33 genes. Of these, 29 genes are associated with information storage and processing, as well as basic cellular processes and metabolism; the function of the other four genes is currently unknown. In addition, a mutant strain BF19, in which biofilm formation was reduced by 98% following insertion of the Tn4351 transposon at the dihydrodipicolinate synthase (dhdps) gene, was complemented with a shuttle plasmid pCP-dhdps. The complemented mutant strain was restored to give 92.6% of the biofilm formation of the wild-type strain CH3, which indicates that the dhdp gene is associated with biofilm formation. It is inferred that such complementation applies also to other mutant strains. Furthermore, some biological characteristics of biofilm-defective mutants were investigated, indicating that the genes deleted in the mutant strains function in the biofilm formation of R. anatipestifer. Deletion of either gene will stall the biofilm formation at a specific stage thus preventing further biofilm development. In addition, the tested biofilm-defective mutants had different adherence capacity to Vero cells. This study will help us to understand the molecular mechanisms of biofilm development by R. anatipestifer and to study the pathogenesis of R. anatipestifer further. © 2012 Hu et al.


Han X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Hu Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ding S.,University of Richmond | Chen W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) infections cause major economic losses in the duck industry. In this study, an immunogenic protein, chaperonin GroEL (GroEL), was identified from the outer membrane of RA strain WJ4 by immunoproteomic assay based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. The complete sequence of the encoding gene, chaperonin groEL (groEL) was amplified and determined to be 1,629 base pairs in length. groEL was then cloned into expression vector pGEX-6P-1, and the expression of the recombinant GroEL (rGroEL) in Escherichia coli strain BL21 was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis. Immunization assay showed that ducklings or rabbits immunized with purified rGroEL generated 53- or 160-fold more anti-GroEL antibodies than those with no immunization. Importantly, bactericidal assay showed that rabbit anti-GroEL serum killed 30.0-57.3% of bacteria representing different serotypes, while rabbit anti-bacterin serum killing activity exhibits large serotype-dependent variations between 0.2% and 63.6%. Animal challenge experiment showed that ducklings immunized with rGroEL were 50%, 37.5%, and 37.5% protected from the challenge with RA strains WJ4 (serotype 1), Th4 (serotype 2), and YXb-2 (serotype 10), respectively. In addition, groEL from 34 additional RA strains was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and products from nine were sequenced. groEL is highly conserved among RA strains, as the DNA sequence identity was over 97.5% between WJ4 and the nine additional strains. Our results suggest that GroEL may be a good candidate for new RA vaccine development. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Han X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ding C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ding C.,China National Engineering Technology Research Center for Poultry | He L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2011

Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) infections cause major economic losses in the duck industry. Detection of RA using conventional assays is time-consuming and laborious. In this study, a simple and rapid assay for the detection of RA was established based on the GroEL gene sequence of RA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with a set of six primers (two outer primers, two inner primers, and two loop primers). This assay was able to detect all the tested RA strains with different serotypes. A minimum of 10 colony-forming units (CFU) of RA was detected, which represents 50-fold higher sensitivity than that of the standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. This assay showed good specificity to RA strains and did not react with any other species of bacteria. The assay is rapidly completed and the amplification is achieved at a minimum of 20 min at 65 C. Furthermore, the assay successfully detected RA in the liver samples of ducklings infected with RA, suggesting that the assay could be used for the clinical diagnosis of RA infection. © American Association of Avian Pathologists.


Hu Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tu J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Han X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2011

Three pathogens, Riemerella anatipestifer, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enterica, are leading causes of bacterial fibrinous pericarditis and perihepatitis in ducks in China and worldwide. It is difficult to differentiate these pathogens when obtaining a diagnosis on clinical signs and pathological changes. The aim of this research was to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) that could discriminate R. anatipestifer, E. coli, and S. enterica rapidly in field isolates, or detect the three bacteria in clinical samples from diseased ducks. We selected the DnaB helicase (dnaB) gene of R. anatipestifer, alkaline phosphatase (phoA) gene of E. coli and invasion protein (invA) gene of S. enterica as target genes. In optimized conditions, the limitation of detection was approximately 10 3 colony forming units (CFU) of each of these three bacterial pathogens per PCR reaction tube. The m-PCR method showed specific amplification of respective genes from R. anatipestifer, E. coli, and S. enterica. Using the m-PCR system, bacterial strains isolated from diseased ducks in our laboratory were categorized successfully, and the pathogens could also be detected in clinical samples from diseased ducks. Therefore, the m-PCR system could distinguish the three pathogens simultaneously, for identification, routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiology, in a single reaction. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Chen H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yu S.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yu S.,China National Engineering Technology Research Center for Poultry | Shen X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Microbial Pathogenesis | Year: 2011

The α-enolase protein is reported to be an adhesin in several pathogenic bacterial species, but its role in Mycoplasma gallisepticum is unknown. In this study, the M. gallisepticum α-enolase gene was adapted to heterologous expression in Escherichia coli by performing overlapping polymerase chain reaction with site-directed mutagenesis to introduce A960G and A1158G mutations in the nucleotide sequence. The full-length mutated gene was cloned into a pGEM-T Easy vector and subcloned into the expression vector pET32a(+) to construct the pET-rMGEno plasmid. The expression of rMGEno in E. coli strain DE3 was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Coomassie blue staining. Purified rMGEno exhibited α-enolase catalytic activity that it could reflect the conversion of NADH to NAD +. Mouse antiserum to α-enolase was generated by immunization with rMGEno. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assay with the antiserum identified α-enolase on the surface of M. gallisepticum cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay characterized rMGEno as a chicken plasminogen binding protein. An adherence inhibition assay on immortalized chicken fibroblasts (DF-1) demonstrated more than 77% inhibition of adhesion in the presence of mouse antiserum, suggesting that α-enolase of M. gallisepticum participates in bacterial adhesion to DF-1 cells. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Yu Y.,Yangzhou University | Yu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qiu X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xu D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2012

Background: The virulent class I Newcastle disease virus (NDV) variant 9a5b was generated from a nonvirulent NDV isolate Goose/Alaska/415/91 via nine consecutive passages in the chicken air sac, followed by five passages in the chick brain. The evolutionary mechanism of virulence in the class I NDV isolate is not fully understood. To elucidate this evolutionary mechanism, a reverse genetics manipulation specific for class I NDV is indispensable. Results: A full-length cDNA clone of 9a5b and the helper plasmids pCI-NP, pCI-P, and pCI-L were constructed from segments of cDNA. After these plasmids were co-transfected into BSR T7/5 cells, infectious viral particles were obtained. The rescued viruses were genetically and biologically identical to the parental strain and showed similar pathogenicity in chickens. Conclusion: A stable recovery method for class I NDV was established. Reverse genetics of the class I NDV variant 9a5b allowed for the generation of genetically altered and virulent NDV, and can be used as a foundation for research on the evolution of virulence in class I NDV isolates. © 2012 Yu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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