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Tan R.,South China University of Technology | Yang P.,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Technology | He P.,South China University of Technology | Wang J.,China National Electrical Apparatus Research Institute
Dianwang Jishu/Power System Technology | Year: 2013

To analyze factors influencing reliability indices of collection system of offshore wind farms, the failures of all cables, switchgears and wind turbines that possibly occur are taken into account in the established reliability model, and a reliability evaluation algorithm of collection system under traditional switchgear configuration scheme and complete switchgear configuration scheme is proposed. Through actual calculation example, the reliability indices under the two switchgear configuration schemes are contrasted, the sensitivity analysis on the annual fault times and the time for fault maintenance of cables, switchgears and wind power generation units, which affect the reliability of the topology, are emphatically contrasted. Comparison results show that the incidences of failure rate of different equipments on the reliability of the topology are not the same, the impact of failure rate of cables on reliability of the topology is the greatest, and the failure rates of switchgears and wind turbines are in the second place. The sensitivity of equipments is also affected by switchgear configuration scheme. Inside the variation range of reliability parameters of equipments in offshore wind farms, the outage rate under complete switchgear configuration scheme is obviously lower than that under traditional switchgear configuration scheme. Source


Wang M.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Wang J.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Feng H.,China National Electrical Apparatus Research Institute | Ke W.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research
Corrosion Science | Year: 2012

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Ag 3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) on corrosion of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) solder alloy under high-temperature and high-humidity condition. The Ag 3Sn IMCs of SAC305 with various size and morphology were obtained by changing cooling rate. Commercial SAC305 solder with smallest Ag 3Sn IMCs exhibits better corrosion resistance than air-cooled and furnace-cooled SAC305 solders because microgalvanic corrosion between large cathodic Ag 3Sn IMCs plates and anodic Sn matrix decreased the corrosion resistance of air-cooled and furnace-cooled SAC305 solders. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Wang M.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Wang J.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Feng H.,China National Electrical Apparatus Research Institute | Ke W.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2012

The heterogeneous microstructure of solder could be obtained when cooling rate of the solder joint was not even, which would affect the corrosion behavior of solder during service. The ambient temperature would also affect the corrosion behavior of solder joint. In this paper, the effects of microstructure and temperature on the corrosion behavior of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) lead-free solder were investigated. The various microstructures of SAC305 lead-free solder were obtained by cooling specimens in air and furnace. Compared to the fine-fibrous Ag 3Sn phase inside the commercial SAC305 solder, platelet-like Ag 3Sn formed as cooling speed decreasing. The polarization behavior of SAC305 solders in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was not significantly affected by various microstructures, but sensitive to temperature. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Zhao K.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Xu W.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Xu W.,Anhui University of Architecture | Song L.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Polymers for Advanced Technologies | Year: 2012

Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MAPP) with polyurethane resin has been prepared by in situ polymerization. The combination of MAPP and boron phosphate (BP) on the flammability properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) was studied by vertical burning (UL-94) tests, limiting oxygen index tests, cone calorimetry (CONE), and microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC) whereas thermal stability was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and real-time Fourier transform infrared. Results showed that a suitable substitution of MAPP by BP could improve flame retardancy of the TPU/MAPP composites and TPU composites with MAPP/BP (15.5/2wt%) achieving UL-94 V-0 rating. The CONE and MCC data showed synergistic effects between BP and MAPP in the composites. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Wang M.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Wang J.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Feng H.,China National Electrical Apparatus Research Institute | Ke W.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research
Materials Science and Engineering A | Year: 2012

The effect of microstructure and corrosion on fracture behavior of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) solder alloy was in-situ studied at three-point bending test using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The results showed that the microcracks initiated at the Sn boundaries in the Β-Sn region for commercial SAC305 solder. For furnace-cooled SAC305 solder, cracks preferred to initiating and propagating along Sn boundaries and Sn/Ag 3Sn interface. Ag 3Sn plates were easily broken during the bending test. The fracture behavior was significantly affected by corrosion. The most vulnerable area to fracture is the corroded region of the specimen. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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