News Article | February 22, 2017
A laboratory in Wuhan is on the cusp of being cleared to work with the world’s most dangerous pathogens. The move is part of a plan to build between five and seven biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) labs across the Chinese mainland by 2025, and has generated much excitement, as well as some concerns. Some scientists outside China worry about pathogens escaping, and the addition of a biological dimension to geopolitical tensions between China and other nations. But Chinese microbiologists are celebrating their entrance to the elite cadre empowered to wrestle with the world’s greatest biological threats. “It will offer more opportunities for Chinese researchers, and our contribution on the BSL‑4-level pathogens will benefit the world,” says George Gao, director of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology in Beijing. There are already two BSL-4 labs in Taiwan, but the National Bio-safety Laboratory, Wuhan, would be the first on the Chinese mainland. The lab was certified as meeting the standards and criteria of BSL-4 by the China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment (CNAS) in January. The CNAS examined the lab’s infrastructure, equipment and management, says a CNAS representative, paving the way for the Ministry of Health to give its approval. A representative from the ministry says it will move slowly and cautiously; if the assessment goes smoothly, it could approve the laboratory by the end of June. BSL-4 is the highest level of biocontainment: its criteria include filtering air and treating water and waste before they leave the laboratory, and stipulating that researchers change clothes and shower before and after using lab facilities. Such labs are often controversial. The first BSL-4 lab in Japan was built in 1981, but operated with lower-risk pathogens until 2015, when safety concerns were finally overcome. The expansion of BSL-4-lab networks in the United States and Europe over the past 15 years — with more than a dozen now in operation or under construction in each region — also met with resistance, including questions about the need for so many facilities. The Wuhan lab cost 300 million yuan (US$44 million), and to allay safety concerns it was built far above the flood plain and with the capacity to withstand a magnitude-7 earthquake, although the area has no history of strong earthquakes. It will focus on the control of emerging diseases, store purified viruses and act as a World Health Organization ‘reference laboratory’ linked to similar labs around the world. “It will be a key node in the global biosafety-lab network,” says lab director Yuan Zhiming. The Chinese Academy of Sciences approved the construction of a BSL-4 laboratory in 2003, and the epidemic of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) around the same time lent the project momentum. The lab was designed and constructed with French assistance as part of a 2004 cooperative agreement on the prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases. But the complexity of the project, China’s lack of experience, difficulty in maintaining funding and long government approval procedures meant that construction wasn’t finished until the end of 2014. The lab’s first project will be to study the BSL-3 pathogen that causes Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever: a deadly tick-borne virus that affects livestock across the world, including in northwest China, and that can jump to people. Future plans include studying the pathogen that causes SARS, which also doesn’t require a BSL-4 lab, before moving on to Ebola and the West African Lassa virus, which do. Some one million Chinese people work in Africa; the country needs to be ready for any eventuality, says Yuan. “Viruses don’t know borders.” Gao travelled to Sierra Leone during the recent Ebola outbreak, allowing his team to report the speed with which the virus mutated into new strains1. The Wuhan lab will give his group a chance to study how such viruses cause disease, and to develop treatments based on antibodies and small molecules, he says. The opportunities for international collaboration, meanwhile, will aid the genetic analysis and epidemiology of emergent diseases. “The world is facing more new emerging viruses, and we need more contribution from China,” says Gao. In particular, the emergence of zoonotic viruses — those that jump to humans from animals, such as SARS or Ebola — is a concern, says Bruno Lina, director of the VirPath virology lab in Lyon, France. Many staff from the Wuhan lab have been training at a BSL-4 lab in Lyon, which some scientists find reassuring. And the facility has already carried out a test-run using a low-risk virus. But worries surround the Chinese lab, too. The SARS virus has escaped from high-level containment facilities in Beijing multiple times, notes Richard Ebright, a molecular biologist at Rutgers University in Piscataway, New Jersey. Tim Trevan, founder of CHROME Biosafety and Biosecurity Consulting in Damascus, Maryland, says that an open culture is important to keeping BSL-4 labs safe, and he questions how easy this will be in China, where society emphasizes hierarchy. “Diversity of viewpoint, flat structures where everyone feels free to speak up and openness of information are important,” he says. Yuan says that he has worked to address this issue with staff. “We tell them the most important thing is that they report what they have or haven’t done,” he says. And the lab’s international collaborations will increase openness. “Transparency is the basis of the lab,” he adds. The plan to expand into a network heightens such concerns. One BSL-4 lab in Harbin is already awaiting accreditation; the next two are expected to be in Beijing and Kunming, the latter focused on using monkey models to study disease. Lina says that China’s size justifies this scale, and that the opportunity to combine BSL-4 research with an abundance of research monkeys — Chinese researchers face less red tape than those in the West when it comes to research on primates — could be powerful. “If you want to test vaccines or antivirals, you need a non-human primate model,” says Lina. But Ebright is not convinced of the need for more than one BSL-4 lab in mainland China. He suspects that the expansion there is a reaction to the networks in the United States and Europe, which he says are also unwarranted. He adds that governments will assume that such excess capacity is for the potential development of bioweapons. “These facilities are inherently dual use,” he says. The prospect of ramping up opportunities to inject monkeys with pathogens also worries, rather than excites, him: “They can run, they can scratch, they can bite.” Trevan says China’s investment in a BSL-4 lab may, above all, be a way to prove to the world that the nation is competitive. “It is a big status symbol in biology,” he says, “whether it’s a need or not.”
News Article | November 15, 2016
GUANGZHOU, China, Nov. 15, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- A groundbreaking ceremony for Guangzhou Infinitus Plaza, constructed on plot No. AB2910019 in Baiyun New Town, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China, was held on November 15. The plot of land was acquired by LKK Health Products Group (LKKHPG), through its member Guangdong Infinitus Property Development Company Ltd., in May 2016 for RMB 2.01 billion (approx. USD 294 million). World-leading architect Zaha Hadid, who was known as the "Queen of the Curve", served as the designer of the project. It is the first project among Zaha Hadid's final architectural works to break ground. Mr. Lee Man Tat, Lee Kum Kee Group Chairman and his wife, Mr. Charlie Lee, Chairman of Lee Kum Kee Sauce Group, Mr. Sammy Lee, Chairman & Managing Director of LKKHPG and his wife, and Mr. Satoshi Ohashi, Director of Zaha Hadid Architects in the Far East, as well as more than 500 distinguished guests and journalists attended the ceremony. Guangzhou Infinitus Plaza will be a complex of modern buildings that combines health, fashion, environmental conservation and intelligent technologies, comprising several facilities including a new global R&D center, a Chinese herbal medicine research and safety assessment center, as well as a corporate exhibition center and gallery. It will serve as the new headquarters of Infinitus (China) Company Ltd., a member of LKKHPG, meeting Infinitus' projected business and office needs for the next 10 to 15 years. The overall investment in the project will reach RMB 4.5 billion (approx. USD 659 million), and the construction is expected to be completed in the second quarter of 2020. "24 years ago, Infinitus started its business in Baiyun District. And today, 24 years later, Infinitus embarks on its new journey here again," said Mr. Harry Yeung, Senior Vice President of LKKHPG. "Guangzhou Infinitus Plaza reflects Infinitus' commitment to the health industry, as well as the spirit of constant entrepreneurship. It will bring customers and employees a dynamic new environment, and drive the economic growth of the Baiyun District and the surrounding areas. " Mr. Satoshi Ohashi enjoyed 30 years of working experience with Zaha Hadid. He said: "Ms. Zaha Hadid gave a high evaluation and expectations of this work. The design of the Guangzhou Infinitus Plaza continues her legacy. As she had referred, this fluidity of the architecture had the coherence and intricacy of nature. Infinitus has a vision for nurturing healthier lives, and adheres to the Spirit of Constant Entrepreneurship. Zaha Hadid has translated this to create a new workplace environment that nurtures openness and communication. The design activates the city and its surrounding conditions, while implementing the latest technologic solutions and construction methods to create a functional, adaptable and enjoyable workplace." Guangzhou Infinitus Plaza just looks unlike a workplace. Designed as a series of "infinite rings" that bring everyone together and follow the arrangement of the symbol for infinity - ∞ -Zaha Hadid organized all departments within the Guangzhou Infinitus Plaza around the central atria and courtyards that foster open communication and interaction. The buildings were designed to maximize the amount of natural light entering the interior while the exterior surfaces provide sun shading and rain collection systems. Connected walkways improve communication for all employees. Walking and jogging courses, as well as a garden of Chinese herbal plants and flora on the roof enable all employees and visitors to maintain an active lifestyle. The health industry will embrace broader development space under the guidance of the national strategy "Healthy China". Upon completion, Guangzhou Infinitus Plaza will be an important anchor to the health industry development of Baiyun District, contributing to the local economy with excellent employment opportunities. Guangzhou Infinitus Plaza is the first large project in which LKKHPG conducted site selection, conceptual planning, and construction all by itself in Chinese Mainland. LKKHPG had earlier acquired the Infinitus Center in Zhujiang New Town, Guangzhou; the Infinitus Plaza in Sheung Wan, Hong Kong; and the Shanghai Corporate Avenue 3 (soon to be renamed Infinitus Tower) in Huangpu District, Shanghai. This collection of quality properties is expected to meet the long-term development goals of LKKHPG while providing strong support for the sustainable and healthy development of Infinitus' business. LKK Health Products Group (LKKHPG) is a member of Lee Kum Kee Group, a century-old Hong Kong enterprise. Headquartered in Hong Kong, LKKHPG is a modern and diversified business group that specializes in R&D, production, sales and services of Chinese herbal health products; TCM plantation management and sales of raw Chinese medicinal materials; mobile internet platform and related products and services; and property investment. As of 30 June 2016, LKKHPG had approximately 4,800 employees. Infinitus (China) Company Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Infinitus (China) or the Company), founded in 1992, is a member of LKKHPG. It has been accredited as National High-Tech Enterprise. Its Product Inspection Center has been accredited as National Accredited Laboratory by China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment (CNAS), and has passed the Proficiency Testing for Food Chemistry of the Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) in the UK in 2012. Committed to providing high-quality Chinese herbal health products, Infinitus (China) invests more than RMB 100 million in R&D and technology every year. As a pioneer in compound polysaccharides technology, the Company has acquired 452 patents as well as scores of core independent intellectual property rights. As of June 2016, the Company had developed 124 high-quality Chinese herbal health products in 5 series that were marketed under 6 brands. It also has set up 36 branches, 29 service centers together with over 6,400 exclusive stores in Chinese Mainland. Zaha Hadid, founder of Zaha Hadid Architects (ZHA), was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize (considered to be the Nobel Prize of architecture) in 2004. She was the first woman to receive the award and internationally known for her ground-breaking streamlined architectural works. Zaha Hadid's outstanding architecture projects also include the MAXXI Museum in Rome, the 2012 London Olympic Aquatics Centre, the Jockey Club Innovation Tower at Hong Kong Polytechnic University, the Guangzhou Opera House, and the Wangjing SOHO in Beijing. Zaha Hadid's vision redefined architecture for the 21st century and captured imaginations across the globe. Her legacy endures within the DNA of the design studio she created. Working with office partner Patrik Schumacher for three decades, ZHA's work arranges form and space into breath-taking spatial compositions. With 55 projects in 26 countries under construction or in design development, ZHA's hugely talented and dedicated teams honor Zaha's legacy, working to design and deliver transformational projects on six continents. For more information, please visit: http://www.lkkhpg.com/en-us/media-centre/corporate-news/detail/20161110174700.
News Article | December 5, 2016
HONG KONG, Dec. 5, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- As it is commonly understood, to appear decent, people need apparel like horses need a saddle. Although some argue that one cannot judge a book by its cover, apparel today represents not only one's taste, but also one's attitude in life. When glancing at photo shoots released by various fashion media, you might be surprised that the vogue and glamor of fashionable clothes and accessories are no longer limited to models. Trendy and attractive outfits on common people also exhibit an eye-catching scene. China Will Become the Largest Apparel Market It might be shocking when certain numbers are checked. According to the prediction released by Statista, by 2025, the global market volume of apparel will amount to USD 2,100 billion (representing approximately RMB 13.7 trillion). In addition, China will become the largest apparel market in the world, with a market volume of USD 540 billion (representing approximately RMB 3.5 trillion). According to Statista's prediction, China will account for 25.6% of the entire global apparel market. Top Five Export Destinations for the Chinese Apparel Industry in 2015 Ranking by export value in 2015, the US, Japan, the UK, Germany, and the United Arab Emirates are the top five export destinations for the Chinese apparel industry. In 2015, the total export value of the Chinese apparel market was RMB 1,021 billion. The export value of the top five export destinations accounted for 44% of the total export amount of the entire industry. In recent years, the Chinese apparel industry has been confronted with quality issues. In addition, even some world-renowned luxury brands are frequently recalled due to the quality issues. In this August, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China issued a recall announcement for some imported luxury brand's Children's apparels, as their pH value and formaldehyde level exceeded China's mandatory standards. Countries in the European Union (EU) have always been a major export market for the Chinese apparel industry. From 2011 to 2015, its export value accounted for 24.4% of the total export value. EU stresses great importance to the quality and safety issue regarding apparel products. "Clothing, textiles, and fashion" is one of the product category under the Rapid Exchange of Information System (RAPEX) that is generating the most concern. According to the statistics available under the RAPEX, 329 reports in total were related to clothing, textiles, and fashion items, among which, 171 reports involved clothing, textiles, and fashion items from China as the country of origin. This report accounted for 52% of the total reported items. As to the clothing, textiles, and fashion items, the primary risk exposure as reported under the RAPEX refers to "injuries" and "strangulation", which has consecutively exceeded 60% of the risk exposure as reported over the last three years. Such risk exposure is commonly detected in such apparel as sportswear and bikinis for girls. Strings and functional cords attached to such apparel that fail to comply with the requirements may cause children to get caught in fences, automated escalators, and other equipment, which may further lead to their suffocation. To address such risk, European countries stipulate apparel items for children must be in compliance with the EN 14682 standard. TUV Rheinland is capable of assisting manufacturers in conducting stringent inspections and testing over apparel items in accordance with this standard to ensure that apparel items are free from such risk exposure as "injuries" and "strangulation". The "Chemical" risk exposure ranks second. It involves hexavalent chromium contained in leather products. Hexavalent chromium contains sensitive substances that may trigger allergic reactions. If apparel items contain prohibited Azo dyes, such items will blend with compounds released due to one's metabolism and cause reduction-oxidation following a prolonged contact with one's skin. In such case, aromatic amines, which are cancer-induced substances, will be generated. In 2013, cancer-induced aromatic amines were detected in a batch of winter school uniforms manufactured by a Shanghai-based fashion company, thus becoming a hotspot for "toxic school uniforms". This further drew attention from the community. To address such risk, TUV Rheinland, who also has rich experience in such inspections and testing, will be able to exercise stringent control over apparel items in accordance with the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), thereby eliminating the potential chemical risk involved in apparel. As a global leader in the testing, inspection and certification industry, TUV Rheinland's laboratories are accredited certified by Die Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle GmbH (DAkkS) in Germany, China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment (CNAS) in mainland China, and Hong Kong Laboratory Accreditation Scheme (HOKLAS) in Hong Kong, enabling it to provide the relevant testing and certification services to apparel items in accordance with the mandatory and recommended requirements under the international or national standard and provisions. TUV Rheinland has been providing testing and certification services to a list of reputable international brands in apparel, including Diesel, DKNY, NEXT, etc. With professional qualifications and experience, TUV Rheinland will assist manufacturers in ensuring the safety and quality of apparel items through the following procedures. If apparel contains zippers, buttons, rivets, sequins, or other decorative accessories, particular attention shall be paid to the sharp corners and edges of these small decorative parts. Small parts, including buttons, beads, decorative yarn balls, bows, and fine strings, will pose a potential safety threat to children under 36 months old. Such small parts attached to apparel must be reinforced to eliminate the potential risk of suffocation. Dark-colored apparel, as well as apparel items that contains a large area of dye patterns, must be avoided as much as possible, as such apparel might contain an excessive level of phthalates, which easily poses a threat to the immune system, the digestion system, and the endocrine system. Meanwhile, TUV Rheinland also recommends that consumers from time to time pay attention to the information published by third-party testing, inspection and certification bodies for purchasing safe apparel items.
Chen S.,Xiamen Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Technology Center |
Zhang Y.,Xinglin Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau |
Li H.,China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment |
Wang J.,Xiamen Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Technology Center |
And 3 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2014
Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and lab-on-a-chip system were used to identify 62 commercial fish species in Taiwan Strait. The fish species include 10 groupers, 12 bream species, 9 Sciaenidae species, 5 puffer species and 26 other fish species. A fragment of 464bp length of mitochondrial cytoehrome b gene was amplified by PCR and the products were digested with restriction enzymes DdeI, HaeIII and NlaIII, individually. The fragments generated after digestion were further resolved on the DNA chip. The results demonstrated that PCR-RFLP analysis and lab-on-a-chip system provided a fast, easy, automated and reliable analysis approach and it will be useful for the control of the adulteration of food with fish tissue content in Taiwan Strait. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Wang Z.,Sichuan University |
Zhang J.,Sichuan University |
Tang D.-Z.,China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment |
Wang Y.-B.,China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment |
Hou Y.-P.,Sichuan University
Journal of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2014
MicroRNA (miRNA) belongs to a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules that contains 18-25 nucleotides and regulates gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Many miRNAs are highly conserved and display timing- and tissue-specific expression. With the advance of the miRNA detection technologies, miRNA has been introduced to forensic science as a potentially novel set of genetic markers of forensic body fluid identification, species identification and PMI estimation. In this article, the detection methodologies of miRNA are reviewed, and their potential applications in forensic practice and research future are also discussed.
Zhong Z.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention |
Li G.,Sun Yat Sen University |
Luo J.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention |
Chen W.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention |
And 3 more authors.
Analytical Methods | Year: 2015
A proficiency testing scheme (CNAS T0419) is described involving 217 laboratories in China as participants using their regular analytical methods for the determination of lead and arsenic in foundation cream cosmetics. The metrological comparability of results from various approaches was tested using simple linear regression analysis and analysis of variance as valid techniques. There were no significant differences in the values obtained after elimination of outliers by the Grubbs test. The normality of the distribution of the results submitted by the participants was examined with the one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The distribution characteristics of result points for the paired samples were investigated using the Youden plot, which could greatly simplify the data analysis process. The assigned values of test materials for proficiency assessment were derived directly from the reported results of the participating laboratories. The measurement capabilities of laboratories for determining heavy metals, especially lead and arsenic in complex matrices were objectively assessed using z-scores, which could readily be used to compare each participant's value relative to the others and enabled the outlier laboratories to find out the dominant error sources such as systematic and random variations. The percentages of acceptable results of between- and within-laboratories were 86.0% and 84.2% for lead, and 84.6% and 83.6% for arsenic, respectively. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Tao L.,State Key Laboratory of Ceramic |
Xiang H.,State Key Laboratory of Ceramic |
Xu H.,State Key Laboratory of Ceramic |
Sun J.,State Key Laboratory of Ceramic |
And 3 more authors.
Accreditation and Quality Assurance | Year: 2010
The proficiency-testing scheme (CNCA-07-06) concerning lead and cadmium determination extracted from glazed ceramic surfaces involved 43 Chinese laboratories as participants, and has been well implemented. All the test materials passed the statistical homogeneity tests, and were deemed suitable for distribution. Reference values were determined from the obtained results and the performance of participants was based on z-scores. As a result, the majority of participants obtained satisfactory z-scores and laboratories that need to revise their procedures were singled out. Overall, about 8.5% of all results submitted in this PT round were unsatisfactory in terms of z-scores (22 out of 258 total data sets submitted), while the percentage of doubtful z-scores was 4.6% (12 out of 258 total data sets). Besides, the factors that might be associated with unsatisfactory results were also evaluated and suggestions were made to help improve the performance of laboratories in this PT. © Springer-Verlag 2009.
Wang L.-B.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control |
Yang M.-C.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control |
Chen Z.-K.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control |
Lu M.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control |
And 3 more authors.
Yaoxue Xuebao | Year: 2012
This proficiency testing program is established to evaluate the pharmaceutical preparation analysis capacity of laboratories recommended by 18 countries and economies. It was authorized by Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (APLAC), and organized by Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control (SIFDC) and China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment (CNAS). The 0.3σ test is used to evaluate the homogeneity and stability of the proficiency testing sample. The results of the laboratories were assessed by Z-score. The robust average and the robust standard deviation of the participants' results were calculated as assigned value and standard deviation for performance assessment of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril using robust statistics. Thirty-three of 38 laboratories recommended by 18 countries and economies sent their results back. Twenty-four laboratories' results were observed as satisfactory. Five laboratories were identified as having reported at least one questionable result. Four laboratories were identified as having reported at least one unsatisfactory result.
Zhang J.,Beijing Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau |
Xu M.,Linyi Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau |
Wang X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Wang Y.,China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment |
And 6 more authors.
Shengwu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2013
To develop a specific, rapid and convenient method based on molecular motor biosensor to detect food-borne rotavirus. A specific probe was encompassed the conservative region of rotavirus's VP7 segment, and a molecular motor detect device was constructed by connecting probes to F0F1-ATPase molecular motor through biotin-streptavidin system. This biosensor's sensitivity was 0.005 ng/mL for rotavirus RNA. Extracted virus RNA was conjugated with the biosensor separately, at the same time ATP was synthesized. By comparing fluorescence intensity, we can detect rotavirus RNA in samples. This method possessed specificity for rotavirus, without any cross-reaction with Hepatitis A virus and noroviris, and it could be accomplished within 1 h. We detected 15 samples using this method and the results were compared with RT-PCR results. This method is sensitive and specific for rotavirus, and it can be used to detect food-borne rotavirus. © 2013 by the Institute of Microbiology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Society for Microbiology.
Zhang Z.-R.,China Automotive Technology and Research Center |
Ji L.-M.,China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment |
Zhang Y.,DEUTZ Dalian Engine Company Ltd |
Gao J.-H.,China Automotive Technology and Research Center |
Wang F.-B.,China Automotive Technology and Research Center
Neiranji Gongcheng/Chinese Internal Combustion Engine Engineering | Year: 2015
Emission characteristics of a China State III diesel engine fueled with five diesel fuels of different AH contents, G5, D1, D2, D3 and D4, were analyzed in various load conditions. PAHs of gaseous phase and particle state were respectively trapped with serial foamed PUF and PTFE fiber filter, and analyzed by GC-MS, especially examining the PAHs emission. Results show that particulate matter (PM) emissions of all diesel fuels exhibit decrease-increase trend with load increase, finally reach max. values at full load. The PAHs emissions exist mainly in gaseous phase, more than 90% of the total. The rest in PM state is less than 10%. Majority of total PAHs is naphthalene and methylnaphthalene, and the PAHs emissions of each fuel depend on its PAHs content. The emitted gaseous phase PAHs are mainly of 2 and 3 benzene rings, and the PM state PAHs mainly of 3 and 4 benzene rings. ©, 2015, Chinese Society for Internal Combustion Engines. All right reserved.