China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co.

Beijing, China

China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co.

Beijing, China

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Liao C.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Liao C.,Peking University | Cheng F.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | And 2 more authors.
Zhongguo Xitu Xuebao/Journal of the Chinese Rare Earth Society | Year: 2017

In 1970s, Prof. Guang-Xian Xu (K. H. Hsu) established the theory of countercurrent extraction (TCE), and further developed the technique of the static design and dynamic simulation assisted by computer, which achieved one-step scale-up of the designed process parameters applied directly to industrial productions. Since its establishment, the TCE has been a key engine in the continuous development of extraction separation technology of rare earths in China in the past 40 years. Meanwhile, the technological advances in turn serve the development of TCE. The theory was applied extensively to the inconstant mixed extraction ratio system from those with constant mixed extraction ratio system. Flowsheet has extended from 2-outlets system to 3- and multi-outlets system, and now to the Hyperlinked extraction system-a basically multi-inlet and multi-outlet system. The equations of theoretical limitations of chemical consumptions expanded to multi-component systems from two-component systems. The present article briefly reviewed the important events of theoretical development and relative applications, and the latest progresses in recent years and relative industrial potentials on the design theory of Hyperlinked extraction system were presented in detail. © 2017, Editorial Office of Journal of the Chinese Society of Rare Earths. All right reserved.


Liao C.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Liao C.,Peking University | Wu S.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,Peking University | And 4 more authors.
Zhongguo Xitu Xuebao/Journal of the Chinese Rare Earth Society | Year: 2012

As an important intermediate material in rare earth (RE) industry, RE sulfate solution had not been directly used in the extraction of rare earths by saponified extractants because of the resultant poor dissoluble RE double sulfates with Na+ (or NH4 +) from saponifier. A proposal of introducing a barrier agent was therefore developed to extract rare earths in sulfates using saponified extractants and a standard of barrier agent selection had been suggested. The natural distribution of univalent cations, barrier cations and rare earth ions in extraction stages, controlled by their extraction order, could be exploited to barrier the direct contact of univalent cations and rare earth ions, and thereby the formation of poor dissoluble RE double sulfates could be avoided. The study provided the possibility for saponified extractants to directly extract and separate rare earths from sulfate solution in industry.


Wu S.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,Peking University | Cheng F.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Cheng F.,Peking University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Rare Earths | Year: 2013

Solvent extraction based on mixer-settler is the major industrial method of rare earth (RE) separation. In the mixer-settler extraction process, due to the insufficient settling time in normal circumstances, backmixing of the aqueous phase could have significant impact on the process of RE extraction separation. Therefore on the basis of the extraction equilibrium and mass balance of the mixer-settler extraction process, here we developed a mathematic expression of the aqueous phase backmixing in a two-component separation process, and obtained a quantitative analysis of the backmixing effect on the purification process by the approximations according to certain hypotheses. Two extraction systems of La/Ce and Pr/Nd separation were chosen as the examples to analyze the backmixing effect, and the results showed that the aqueous backmixing had greater influence in the scrubbing segment than in the extraction segment, especially in the system with a high separation factor such as La/Ce separation. Therefore it was suggested that the aqueous backmixing effect should be well attended in the design and application of RE extraction separation. © 2013 The Chinese Society of Rare Earths.


Liao C.-S.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Liao C.-S.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Wu S.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | And 5 more authors.
Separation Science and Technology (Philadelphia) | Year: 2013

As one kind of the most important intermediate materials in rare earth (RE) industry, RE sulfates have been considered difficult to be extracted and separated directly by saponified extractants due to the dissolubility of RE double sulfate of Na+ (or NH4 +) cation. By introducing a barrier agent such as Mg2+ ion in the present work, we proposed and developed a process to extract RE cations in sulfate medium with saponified HEH(EHP). Further, a selection criterion of the barrier agent was discussed. The results have revealed that the natural distribution of the univalent ion, (Na+ or NH4 +), RE3+ and Mg2+ ions, as determined by their extraction sequence in the cascade, hinders the contact between Na+ (or NH4 +) cation and RE ions, and thereby RE double sulfate precipitate does not form during the extraction. Consequently, the study can provide us a strong possibility for extracting and even separating RE using saponified extractants directly from sulfate solution in no need of any transformation of the RE salts employed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Cheng F.-X.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Liu Y.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | And 5 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2014

A novel solvent countercurrent extraction separation technology which can dramatically save the use of acid and alkali during multi-component separation using acidic extractants, hyperlink extraction technology, has been widely applied in rare earth industry in recent years. AB/BC extraction separation is one of the important formations of hyperlink process, and is therefore discussed in this article with the target to develop the optimization theory of hyperlink extraction process. The study revealed that it can result minimum amounts of both extracting solvent and scrubbing agent solution for a given AB/BC separation using aqueous feed only when the ratio between the flowrate of central component B leaving aqueous outlet to that leaving organic outlet reaches an optimum value. This optimum flowrate ratio of B component can be decided merely by the separation factors between the components but regardless of feed composition. The minimum amount of extracting solvent can be calculated by the feed composition together with the separation factors, while that of scrubbing agent solution is only determined by the separation factor of A/C pair and irrelevant to the feed composition and the separation factors of the other pairs as well. Meanwhile the composition of aqueous stream leaving feed stage is totally same as that of the feed when the separation system is given the minimum amounts of extracting solvent and scrubbing agent solution after steady state has been reached. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Cheng F.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Zhang B.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Rare Earths | Year: 2013

Computer simulation of the preparation process loading rare earth (RE) directly from acidic extractant and RE chloride was established using MATLAB software. The mechanism of the extraction reaction was assumed, and then an experiment was conducted to confirm the mechanism and the apparent equilibrium constant of the reaction was determined as well. Owing to the involvement of H+ ion in the reaction between acidic extractant and RE chloride, the computer simulation of the process was more complicated than that of the extraction only between different rare earths. In the present work, MATLAB software was therefore introduced to handle the resolution of the complicated processing equation, and the simulation was performed by varying some key parameters including feed composition and phase ratio, etc. Consequently this work presented a simple method to simulate the H+ ion involved countercurrent extraction process of rare earths and also provided the practical references for the relative process designing. © 2013 The Chinese Society of Rare Earths.


Cheng F.-X.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Zhang B.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | And 5 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2015

For a given countercurrent extraction separation, minimum amounts of extraction solvent and scrubbing agent solution indicating the limits of chemical consumptions are critical parameters for process design. The article derives the equations of those two minimum amounts for a two-component separation in a complex feeding pattern called "in-with-out" feeding by us. This feeding pattern leads out an organic stream from the stage that an aqueous feed enters or an aqueous stream from the stage that an organic feed enters. The exiting streams will serve as extracting solvent or scrubbing agent solution in other separation units, by which the overall chemical consumptions of an entire process can be decreased. Therefore the in-with-out feeding pattern is necessarily employed, especially in hyperlink extraction technology which has been widely applied to the rare earth separation industry in China with the aim of saving the use of chemicals. This work may significantly contribute to the theory of countercurrent extraction. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Cheng F.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Liao C.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Rare Earths | Year: 2013

Impurity components decrease stage by stage in a cascade of rare earth (RE) extraction separation, and adjacent stage impurity ratio (ASIR) which is defined as the ratio of an impurity's contents in the aqueous/organic phase of two adjacent stages can be used to evaluate the capacity of impurity removal for the two stages. On the basis of extraction equilibrium and mass balance, the ASIR in a two-component extraction separation was deducted and its simplified expressions were given for different process sections according to reasonable assumptions. The calculation simulation was then carried out to obtain the ASIR distribution in the cascade. The results showed that in both the extraction and scrubbing sections the ASIR principally increased with the decrease of the molar proportion of the impurity but along with a flat appearing in the purification zone located in the middle of the cascade. The ASIR intuitively exhibits the running status of RE extraction separation and purification, which could provide a theoretic guide for investigating the influence factors of RE extraction separation process in practical industry. © 2013 The Chinese Society of Rare Earths.


Cheng F.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Zhang B.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Rare Earths | Year: 2014

For an AB/BC countercurrent extraction separation using organic feed, the conditions to have minimum amount of extracting solvent (Smin) and minimum amount of scrubbing agent solution (Wmin) were discussed, and the formulae of both Smin and Wmin were deduced. It was shown that only when the ratio of flowrate of central component B leaving aqueous outlet to that leaving organic outlet took a certain optimal value, the AB/BC separation could have Smin as well as Wmin, and this optimal ratio was decided by the separation factors between the three components but independent of feed composition. Smin was only relative to the separation factor of A/C pair but regardless of the separation factors of other pairs as well as feed composition, whereas Wmin was determined by the separation factors between the components together with feed composition. Meanwhile it was also found that the organic stream out of feed stage was same composition as the initial organic feed when the separation system was given by the two minimum amounts and its steady state was achieved. Finally the results above were used to design a LuYb/YbTm separation case and the stage-wise compositions of each component in both the organic and the aqueous phase at steady state were given by computer simulation. © 2014 The Chinese Society of Rare Earths.


Liao C.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Liao C.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Wu S.,China Minmetals Beijing Research Institute of RE Co. | Wu S.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Rare Earths | Year: 2013

After a review on the conventional separation process of rare earths (RE), hyperlink extraction technology was introduced and a potential process was proposed for clean separation of RE. A great amount of acid, base and water was consumed in the conventional RE separation process which included the procedures of raw material dissolving, extraction separation and precipitation. Therefore hyperlink extraction technology had been developed, by which the repeated consumption of acid and base could be avoided during the extraction process. And based on the theory and successful applications of the hyperlink extraction technology, we proposed the integral hyperlink process in which the intermediate acid resulted in individual procedures would be recycled and reused after being treated. The proposed process would make it feasible to consume no chemicals except for oxalic acid, and so could be a promising clean separation technology with a significant reduction on consumption and emission. © 2013 The Chinese Society of Rare Earths.

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