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The polymorphism Pro12Ala in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 gene (PPARγ2) has been reported to be associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in some studies, though the results remain inconclusive. To explore this relationship between PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and the susceptibility for DN, a cumulative meta-analysis was performed in this study. PubMed, Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases have been systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. 18 studies were included in this meta-analysis, involving 3,361 cases and 5,815 controls. The PPARγ2 Ala12 allele was significantly associated with decreased risk of DN based on dominant model (OR=0.778; 95%CI=0.618-0.981; Pheterogeneity=0.008; P=0.034). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significantly decreased risks were found among Caucasians for dominant model (OR=0.674; 95%CI=0.500-0.909; Pheterogeneity=0.079; P=0.010), while there was no significant association was found in Asians. The results from the present meta-analysis indicated that the Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPARγ2 gene is not a risk factor for DN in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this conclusion. The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7491348341027320. Source

Han D.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li J.,China Medical University at Heping
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2013

A large hurdle in orthopedics today is the difficulty of dealing with the non-union of fractured bones. We therefore evaluated the effects of runt-related transcription factor II (Runx II), a factor used to create gene-modified tissue-engineered bone, combined with vascular bundle implantation for repairing segmental bone defects. Adenovirus Runx II gene (Ad-Runx II)-modified rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded onto polylactic acid/polycaprolacton (PLA/PCL) scaffolds to construct gene-modified tissue-engineered bone. The following four methods were used for repair in rabbit radial-defect (1.5 cm long) models: gene-modified tissue-engineered bone with vascular bundle (Group A), gene-modified tissue-engineered bone (Group B), non-gene-modified tissue-engineered bone with vascular bundle (Group C), and PLA/PCL scaffolds only (Group D). X-ray, histological examination, biomechanics analysis, and micro-angiography were conducted 4, 8, and 12 weeks later to determine angiogenesis and osteogenesis. The volume and speed of production of newly formed bones in Group A were significantly superior to those in other groups, and de-novo vascular network circulation from the vessel bundle through newly formed bone tissue was observed, with the defect being completely repaired. Group B showed a slightly better effect in terms of speed and quality of bone formation than Group C, whereas the bone defect in Group D was replaced by fibrous tissue. The maximal anti-bending strength in Group A was significantly higher than that in the other groups. Runx II gene therapy combined with vascular bundle implantation thus displays excellent abilities for osteoinduction and vascularization and is a promising method for the treatment of bone non-union and defect. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

The usage of submental flap is a good method for head and neck reconstruction, but it has some risk also, such as anatomical variations and surgical errors. In this article, we present a modified incision design for the submental flap. We designed a modified submental flap incision method based on the overlap of the incision outline of the submental flap, platysma myocutaneous flap and infrahyoid myocutaneous flap. If we found that the submental flap was unreliable during the neck dissection at the level III, II and Ib areas, the infrahyoid myocutaneous flap or platysma myocutaneous flap was used to replace it. Between 2004 and 2012, we performed 30 cases using this method. As control, 33 radial forearm free flaps were counted. Significant differences were evaluated using the χ(2) test and Mann-Whitney U. Survival and recurrence were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the 30 patients, 27 finally received a submental flap, 1 patient received an infrahyoid myocutaneous flap, and 2 patients received a platysma myocutaneous flap. In patients who received the submental flap, the average operation time was 5.9 hours, 2.4 hours shorter than the radial forearm free flap group; the average age was 61.8, 6.1 years older than the radial forearm free flap group; the survival time and recurrence time did not significantly differ with those of the forearm free flap group; and the success rate was higher than traditional methods. The wider indications, less required time, the similar low risk of recurrence and death as radial forearm free flap, higher success rate than traditional submental flap harvest methods, and ability to safely harvest a submental flap make the modified incision design a reliable method. Source

To study the protective effect of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel (mitoKATP channel) opener, nicorandil, combined with Na+/Ca2+ exchange blocker KB-R7943 on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts; the isolated rat heart was perfused by modified Langendorff device, after 15-min balanced perfusion, 45-min ischemia (about left and right coronary perfusion flow reduced to 5% of the original irrigation flow), and 2-h reperfusion were performed. Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, nicorandil group, KB-R7943 group, and the combination of nicorandil and KB-R7943 group. After 45-min ischemia and then 2-h reperfusion, the myocardial infarct size was 34. 31% in control group, 26. 35% in nicorandil group, 28. 74% in KB-R7943 group, and 19. 23% in combination of nicorandil and KB-R7943 group. SOD activity in coronary perfusion fluid was the highest in the combination of nicorandil and KB-R7943 group, and MDA content was the lowest. In the combination drug group compared with the control group, myocardial ultrastructural injury was significantly reduced. The combination of nicorandil and KB-R7943 significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, significantly reduced myocardial ultrastructural damage, could increase coronary perfusion fluid SOD activity, and reduced MDA levels. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

To explore the determinants of smoking behaviour in recreational venues and to provide scientific bases for establishing smoke-free measures applying to these locations. The International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey--a face-to-face cross-sectional survey of representative adult smokers from six cities (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Changsha and Yinchuan)--was conducted between April and August 2006. A total of 4815 smokers were selected using multistage sampling methods, and final analyses were conducted on 2875 smokers who reported patronising recreational venues at least once in the last six months. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors influencing the smoking behaviour within recreational settings. Outcome measure Whether a smoker reported smoking in recreational venues during the last 6 months. 84% subjects reported smoking in recreational venues. Analyses showed that smoke-free laws had been exempted, 32.0% of the patrons reporting bans on smoking in these locations. The following factors were significant predictors of smoking in recreational venues: absence of bans on smoking, support for non-bans, being aged 18-24 years, positive smoking-related attitudes, low number of health effects reported and not living in Beijing. The findings point to the importance of informing Chinese smokers about the active smoking and passive smoking harmfulness in both building support for smoke-free laws and in reducing smokers' desire to smoke within recreational venues. They also point to the importance of good enforcement of smoke-free laws when implemented. Such strategies could also serve to de-normalise smoking in China, a key strategy for reducing smoking in general. Source

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