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Zhang Y.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | He Y.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Yang J.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Yang J.,China Lucky Group Corporation | And 3 more authors.
Polymer (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

A fluorinated photoinitiator, namely perfluorooctanoyl acid 2- [4-(2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propionyl)-phenoxy]-ethyl ester (F-2959) was synthesized and characterized. To increase the polymerization rate, fluorine groups were connected to the benzene ring rather than the hydroxyalkyl. Real time FTIR analysis was taken to study the ability of F-2959 to overcome oxygen inhibition. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, XPS, SEM, and multi-channel thermo detector were used to prove the migration of F-2959 in the formulations. During photopolymerization, the oxygen inhibition could be obviously decreased as the large amount of photoinitiator at the surface could consume oxygen in the air atmosphere. The fluorine compounds gathering on the surface also reduced the surface energy. By using this strategy, the film surface develops a wrinkled pattern with a low surface energy. And the wrinkled pattern may prove very useful in photopolymerization. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Yang F.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Yang J.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Yang J.,China Lucky Group Corporation | Zheng K.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | And 2 more authors.
Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2015

Ionic liquids are used widely as solvents or electrolytes for electrochemical synthesis and applications due to their wide electrochemical windows, good electrical conductivity, and their excellent solubility to both organic and inorganic compounds. Until now, no papers have reported the use of ionic liquids as initiators in polymerization. In most cases, the kinetics of electro-induced polymerization are studied by gas chromatography (GC), NMR, or the gravimetric method, which are complicated and time consuming. In this paper, the kinetics of electro-induced polymerization of vinyl ethers using ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF4) as initiator are investigated by real-time Fourier transform near-IR (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. The results show that the ionic liquid BMIMBF4 is an efficient initiator for electro-induced polymerization of vinyl ethers. The final double-bond conversion and polymerization rate can be adjusted by the electric-field intensity and the concentration of the ionic liquid BMIMBF4. Moreover, the post-curing, as well as the obvious inhibition effects of KOH, indicate that the electro-induced polymerization goes through a cationic process. The possible mechanism is also postulated. (Figure Presented). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Fu Y.,Ocean University of China | Lu Z.,Ocean University of China | Lu Z.,China Lucky Group Corporation | Zai X.,Ocean University of China | Wang J.,Ocean University of China
Journal of Ocean University of China | Year: 2015

Electrode materials have an important effect on the property of microbial fuel cell (MFC). Carbon foam is utilized as an anode and further modified by urea to improve its performance in marine benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC) with higher voltage and output power. The electrochemical properties of plain carbon foam (PC) and urea-modified carbon foam (UC) are measured respectively. Results show that the UC obtains better wettability after its modification and higher anti-polarization ability than the PC. A novel phenomenon has been found that the electrical potential of the modified UC anode is nearly 100 mV lower than that of the PC, reaching −570 ±10 mV (vs. SCE), and that it also has a much higher electron transfer kinetic activity, reaching 9399.4 mW m−2, which is 566.2-fold higher than that from plain graphite anode (PG). The fuel cell containing the UC anode has the maximum power density (256.0 mW m−2) among the three different BMFCs. Urea would enhance the bacteria biofilm formation with a more diverse microbial community and maintain more electrons, leading to a lower anodic redox potential and higher power output. The paper primarily analyzes why the electrical potential of the modified anode becomes much lower than that of others after urea modification. These results can be utilized to construct a novel BMFC with higher output power and to design the conditioner of voltage booster with a higher conversion ratio. Finally, the carbon foam with a bigger pore size would be a potential anodic material in conventional MFC. © 2015, Science Press, Ocean University of China and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Zou J.,China Lucky Group Corporation | Zou J.,Tianjin University
Yingxiang Kexue yu Guanghuaxue/Imaging Science and Photochemistry | Year: 2014

Printed electronics have developed rapidly abroad in recent years. Many scientific achievements have been brought into production from laboratories, and printed electronics industry system has formed as a result. This article introduces organic materials, inorganic materials and technological equipments which are applied in printed electronics. A detailed description of electronic products and its applications are also listed in this article. The printing products have entered people's daily life in many aspects. Though the printed electronic industry is still in the initial stage and the market is not mature, it has a brilliant prospect in the future. The article also points out the attentions and supports from government are the key factor to promote the development of printed electronics industry abroad. Source


Yang F.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Zhu X.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Li C.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Yang J.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | And 3 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

This work presents the electrochemically-induced polymerization of vinyl ether monomers by using potassium hexafluoroantimonate (KSbF6) as the initiating species. Static characterization of the resulting polymers was investigated by ATR-FT-IR. Real-time FT-NIR was used to study the kinetics of the electro-initiated polymerizations. Under certain conditions, rapid cationic polymerization kinetic profiles and high final conversion of monomer to polymer could be obtained. The reaction rate could be readily adjusted based on the applied voltage or by the introduction of an alkaline additive, which along with the observation of extended post curing clearly demonstrated the cationic nature of the electrochemical process. The thermo-stability of the polymerized product was investigated by TGA. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source

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