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Xiu L.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Kunliang G.,China Kweichow Moutai Distillery Co. | Hongxun Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

This study endeavored to investigate the diversity of microbes present during the shaping, ripening and drying of Daqu, a fermentation starter culture and substrata complex of Maotai alcoholic spirit. A nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique was utilized with different combinations of primers. The results showed the presence of bacteria, yeasts and molds. The microflora, which originate from wheat, were readily detectable during every stage of the fermentation process. However, the microbial structure had clear differences in the shaping, ripening and drying processes. In the shaping stage, there was a high level of diversity of the LAB (lactic acid bacteria) and fungi in the shaped samples. In the ripening stage, however, a reduction of diversity of fungi with a high level of diversity of the Bacilli was observed in the ripened samples. In the drying stage, the diversity of Bacilli and fungi, especially acid-producing bacteria, reduced dramatically. Interestingly, uncultured Lactococcus sp., Microbacterium testaceum, Cochliobolus sp., and Thermoascus crustaceus were the first to be detected in the fermentation starters used in liquor production. This study revealed the microbial diversity and distributions during the shaping, ripening and drying of Daqu-making, facilitating evaluation of the hygienic conditions and aiding in the design of specific starter and/or adjunct cultures. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Wang L.,China Kweichow Moutai Distillery Co. | Wang Y.-Y.,BGI Shenzhen | Wang Y.-Y.,Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Environmental Microbial Genomics and Application | Wang D.-Q.,China Kweichow Moutai Distillery Co. | And 11 more authors.
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2015

Microbes are the major producers of alcohol and aromatic compounds in alcohol beverages. It is believed that, in addition to production techniques and grains, different micro-ingredient compositions yield variations in aromas and tastes. The bacterial communities of the three key phases from Moutai liquor production were profiled with the Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 54 bacterial families were detected and the microbial structure showed clear differences among samples. In the starter-making phase, Leuconostocaceae and Enterococcaceae dominated the shaping stage, and Bacillaceae dominated the mature starter and ripening stages. In the latter two phases, Bacillaceae and Lactobacillales dominated in the early stage of stack fermentation and the anaerobic stage of pit fermentation, respectively. Most of the important microbes (approximately 26 families) might have originated from the starter and greatly affected the bacterial structure of the samples during the early stages of stack fermentation. Production techniques and environmental factors, such as temperature and oxygen, also shaped the unique bacterial composition during different phases. © 2015 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.

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