China Institute of Sport Science

Beijing, China

China Institute of Sport Science

Beijing, China
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Guo J.,China Institute of Sport Science | Zhang X.,Peking University | Wang L.,Peking University | Guo Y.,China Institute of Sport Science | Xie M.,Beijing Sports University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: There is an increasing concern on cardiometabolic health in young professional athletes at heavy-weight class. Objective: Our cross-sectional survey aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of metabolic risk factors in a population of young and active professional athletes of strength sports in China. Methods: From July 2006 to December 2008, a total of 131 male and 130 female athletes of strength sports were enrolled. We used two criteria provided by the Chinese Diabetes Society (2004) and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (2002) to define the metabolic syndrome and its individual components, respectively. Results: Regardless of their similar ages (mean: 21 years) and exercise levels, athletes in the heaviest-weight-class with unlimited maximum body weight (UBW) boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 130 kg and 38 kg/m 2 for men, 110 kg and 37 kg/m2 for women) had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than did those in all other body-weight-class with limited body weight (LBW) boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 105 kg and 32 kg/m2 for men, 70 kg and 26 kg/m2 for women). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using CDS criteria (UBW vs. LBW: 89% vs. 18% for men, 47% vs. 0% for women) and its individual components, including central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and impaired fasting glucose, were all significantly higher in athletes at the heaviest weight group with UBW than all other weight groups with LBW. Conclusions: Our study suggests that professional athletes of strength sports at the heaviest-weight-class are at a significant increased risk of cardiometabolic disease compared with those at all other weight categories. The findings support the importance of developing and implementing the strategy of early screening, awareness, and interventions for weight-related health among young athletes. © 2013 Guo et al.


Tian Y.,China Institute of Sport Science | Huang C.,Shandong Sport University | He Z.,China Institute of Sport Science | Hong P.,China Institute of Sport Science | Zhao J.,China Institute of Sport Science
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2015

Aim: The causal relation between autonomic function and adiposity is an unresolved issue. Thus, we studied whether resting heart rate variability (HRV) changes could be used to predict changes in body composition after 16. weeks of individualized exercise training. Methods: A total of 117 sedentary overweight/obese adults volunteered to join an intervention group (IN, n=82) or a control group (CON, n=35). The intervention group trained for 30-40min three times a week with an intensity of 85-100% of individual ventilatory threshold (Thvent). At baseline and after a 16-week training period, resting HRV variables, body composition and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) were assessed. Results: Compared with CON, exercise training significantly improved HRV and body composition and increased VO2peak (P<0.05). Significant correlations were observed between changes of HRV variables and body composition indices and VO2peak (P<0.05). Greater individual changes in HRV in response to exercise training were observed for those with greater total and central fat loss. Conclusion: Individual aerobic-based exercise training was for improving autonomic function and resting HRV responses to aerobic training is a potential indicator for adaptations to exercise training. © 2015.


Tong T.K.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Lin H.,Liaoning Normal University | Lippi G.,U.O. di Diagnostica Ematochimica | Nie J.,Macao Polytechnic Institute | Tian Y.,China Institute of Sport Science
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the impact of professional training on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in adolescent endurance athletes and compared it with that of untrained individuals. Firstly, serum thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARSs), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were measured in 67 male runners, cyclists, and untrained adolescents. Seven-day dietary intakes were also assessed. Secondly, for age- and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 36 out of the 67 subjects (12 for each group) were then selected and investigated. In cyclists, XO, GSH, and CAT were higher as compared with runners and controls. The CAT in runners, but not GSH and XO, was also higher than in controls. TBARS, T-AOC, and SOD did not differ among the study populations. Regarding the inter-individual relationships among serum redox statuses and dietary nutrient intakes, significant correlations were noted in CAT versus carbohydrates, protein, magnesium, and manganese; GSH versus carbohydrates, protein, fat, selenium, zinc, iron, and magnesium; XO versus cholesterol; CAT versus GSH. These findings suggest that the resting blood redox balance in the professional adolescent athletes was well maintained partly by the increase of individual antioxidant in adaptation to chronic exercise. © 2012 Tom K. Tong et al.


Pitsiladis Y.,University of Glasgow | Wang G.,University of Glasgow | Wolfarth B.,TU Munich | Scott R.,Institute of Metabolic Science | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

Numerous reports of genetic associations with performance-related phenotypes have been published over the past three decades but there has been limited progress in discovering and characterising the genetic contribution to elite/world-class performance, mainly owing to few coordinated research efforts involving major funding initiatives/consortia and the use primarily of the candidate gene analysis approach. It is timely that exercise genomics research has moved into a new era utilising well-phenotyped, large cohorts and genomewide technologies-approaches that have begun to elucidate the genetic basis of other complex traits/ diseases. This review summarises the most recent and significant findings from sports genetics and explores future trends and possibilities.


Lucia A.,European University at Madrid | Moran M.,Hospital 12 Of Octubre | Zihong H.,China Institute of Sport Science | Ruiz J.R.,Karolinska Institutet
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2010

Recent research has analyzed the genetic factors that influence world-class athletic status. Much of what we know comes from association studies, with the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms having been extensively studied. The association between the ACTN3 R577X variation and elite athlete status in power sports is strongly documented, yet whether the current body of knowledge on other variants can be extrapolated to athletic champion status remains to be determined. Athletic champion status is a complex polygenic trait in which numerous candidate genes, complex gene-gene interactions, and environment-gene interactions are involved. Besides the need for more studies and new approaches taking into account the complexity of the problem., we believe that factors beyond genetic endowment are likely to have a stronger influence in the attainment of athletic champion status. © Human Kinetics, Inc.


Xu J.,China Institute of Sport Science | Lombardi G.,IRCCS Instituto Ortopedico Galeazzi | Jiao W.,Beijing Sport University | Banfi G.,IRCCS Instituto Ortopedico Galeazzi | Banfi G.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University
Sports Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: Osteoporosis and postmenopausal bone loss pose a huge social and economic burden worldwide. Regular exercise and physical activity are effective interventions for maximizing or maintaining peak bone mass and preventing bone loss in the elderly; however, most recommendations are addressed to the general public and lack specific indications for girls and women, the segment of the population most at risk for developing osteoporosis. Objective: The aim of this overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was to summarize current evidence for the effects of exercise and physical activity interventions on bone status in girls and women, and to explore whether specific exercise programs exist for improving or maintaining bone mass or bone strength in females. Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE, PEDro, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 2009, updated to 22 June 2015, using the following groups of search terms: (i) ‘physical activity’ and ‘exercise’; and (ii) ‘bone’, ‘bone health’, ‘bone strength’, ‘bone structure’, ‘bone metabolism’, ‘bone turnover’, and ‘bone biomarkers’. Searches and screening were limited to systematic reviews or meta-analyses of studies in females and published in English. Our final analysis included 12 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Results: Combined-impact exercise protocols (impact exercise with resistance training) are the best choice to preserve/improve bone mineral density in pre- and postmenopausal women. Peak bone mass in young girls can be improved with short bouts of school-based high-impact plyometric exercise programs. Whole-body vibration exercises have no beneficial effects on bone in postmenopausal or elderly women. Conclusions and Implications: Lifelong exercise, specific for age, is an effective way to sustain bone health in girls and women. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


Tian Y.,China Institute of Sport Science | Nie J.,Macao Polytechnic Institute | Huang C.,Shanghai University of Sport | George K.P.,Liverpool John Moores University
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

The nature and kinetics of postexercise cardiac troponin (cTn) appearance is poorly described and understood in most athlete populations. We compared the kinetics of high-sensitivity cTn T (hs-cTnT) after endurance running in training-matched adolescents and adults. Thirteen male adolescent (mean age:14.1 ± 1.1 yr) and 13 male adult (24.0 ± 3.6 yr) runners performed a 90-min constant-load treadmill run at 95% of ventilatory threshold. Serum hs-cTnT levels were assessed preexercise, immediately postexercise, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 24 h postexercise. Serum NH2-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) levels were recorded preexercise and 3, 6, and 24 h postexercise. Left ventricular function was assessed preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 6 h postexercise. Peak hs-cTnT occurred at 3-4 h postexercise in all subjects, but was substantially higher (P < 0.05) in adolescents [median (range):211.0 (11.2-794.5) ng/l] compared with adults [median (range):19.1 (9.7-305.6) ng/l]. Peak hs-cTnT was followed by a rapid decrease in both groups, although adolescent data had not returned to baseline at 24 h. Substantial interindividual variability was noted in peak hs-cTnT, especially in the adolescents. NT-pro-BNP was significantly elevated postexercise in both adults and adolescents and remained above baseline at 24 h in both groups. In both groups, left ventricular ejection fraction and the ratio of early-to-atrial peak Doppler flow velocities were significantly decreased immediately postexercise. Peak hs-cTnT was not related to changes in ejection fraction, ratio of early-to-atrial peak Doppler flow velocities, or NT-pro-BNP. The present data suggest that postexercise hs-cTnT elevation 1) occurred in all runners, 2) peaked 3-4 h postexercise, and 3) the peak hs-cTnT concentration after prolonged exercise was higher in adolescents than adults.


Tian Y.,China Institute of Sport Science | Nie J.,Macao Polytechnic Institute | George K.P.,Liverpool John Moores University | Huang C.,Shanghai University of Sport
Biomarkers | Year: 2014

We examined the reproducibility of alterations in cardiac biomarkers after two identical bouts of prolonged exercise in young athletes. Serum high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were assessed before and after exercise. Significant rises in median hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP occurred in both trials. While the absolute changes in hs-cTnT were smaller after trial 2, the pattern of change was similar and the delta scores were significantly related. However, the change in NT-proBNP was not correlated between trials. The hs-cTnT release demonstrates some consistency after exercise although the blunted hc-cTnT response requires further study. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.


Zhang X.,Indiana University | Liu C.,Zhengzhou University | Guo J.,China Institute of Sport Science | Song Y.,Indiana University
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background/Objectives:Selenium was thought to have a role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) owing to its antioxidant properties; however, evidence from observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has been inconsistent and controversial. We thus conducted a meta-analysis to assess the discrepancies between observational and randomized trial evidence.Subjects/Methods:We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for eligible prospective studies regarding the relationship between selenium and CVD up to 15 December 2013 and finally included 16 prospective observational studies and 16 RCTs. Random effects model was used to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR). Generalized least-squares trend test and restricted cubic spline model were performed to assess a linear and a nonlinear dose-response relationship.Results:Our meta-analysis of prospective studies showed a nonlinear relationship of CVD risk with blood selenium concentrations across a range of 30-165 μg/l and a significant benefit of CVD within a narrow selenium range of 55-145 μg/l. Our meta-analyses of RCTs showed that oral selenium supplements (median dose: 200 μg/day) for 2 weeks to 144 months significantly raised the blood selenium concentrations by 56.4 μg/l (95% confidence interval (CI): 40.9, 72.0 μg/l), whereas oral selenium supplements (median: 100 μg/day) for 6 to 114 months caused no effect on CVD (RR=0.91; 95% CI: 0.74, 1.10).Conclusions:Our meta-analysis in prospective studies demonstrated a significant inverse association between selenium status and CVD risk within a narrow selenium range and a null effect of selenium supplementation on CVD was observed in RCTs. These findings indicate the importance of considering selenium status, dose and safety in health assessment and future study design. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Hao W.-Y.,China Institute of Sport Science
Yiyong Shengwu Lixue/Journal of Medical Biomechanics | Year: 2011

The method of biomechanical modeling and computer simulation for human movement has been widely used in such research fields as elucidating physiological mechanisms of different kinds of movements, investigating the causes of sports injuries, helping to promote sports performances and to prevent injuries for athletes. Such method involves mathematical modeling on a series of physiological, anatomical and mechanical characteristics of human bones, joints, muscles and nerves. Muscle forces exerted during movements can be estimated using algorithms based on such models. Meanwhile, simulation experiments can be performed and make the results visualized by using computer software. This paper will review the biomechanical modeling and computer simulation of human movement and its application in details.

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