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Pitsiladis Y.,University of Glasgow | Wang G.,University of Glasgow | Wolfarth B.,TU Munich | Scott R.,Institute of Metabolic Science | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

Numerous reports of genetic associations with performance-related phenotypes have been published over the past three decades but there has been limited progress in discovering and characterising the genetic contribution to elite/world-class performance, mainly owing to few coordinated research efforts involving major funding initiatives/consortia and the use primarily of the candidate gene analysis approach. It is timely that exercise genomics research has moved into a new era utilising well-phenotyped, large cohorts and genomewide technologies-approaches that have begun to elucidate the genetic basis of other complex traits/ diseases. This review summarises the most recent and significant findings from sports genetics and explores future trends and possibilities.

Xu J.,China Institute of Sport Science | Lombardi G.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Jiao W.,Beijing Sport University | Banfi G.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Banfi G.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University
Sports Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: Osteoporosis and postmenopausal bone loss pose a huge social and economic burden worldwide. Regular exercise and physical activity are effective interventions for maximizing or maintaining peak bone mass and preventing bone loss in the elderly; however, most recommendations are addressed to the general public and lack specific indications for girls and women, the segment of the population most at risk for developing osteoporosis. Objective: The aim of this overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was to summarize current evidence for the effects of exercise and physical activity interventions on bone status in girls and women, and to explore whether specific exercise programs exist for improving or maintaining bone mass or bone strength in females. Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE, PEDro, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 2009, updated to 22 June 2015, using the following groups of search terms: (i) ‘physical activity’ and ‘exercise’; and (ii) ‘bone’, ‘bone health’, ‘bone strength’, ‘bone structure’, ‘bone metabolism’, ‘bone turnover’, and ‘bone biomarkers’. Searches and screening were limited to systematic reviews or meta-analyses of studies in females and published in English. Our final analysis included 12 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Results: Combined-impact exercise protocols (impact exercise with resistance training) are the best choice to preserve/improve bone mineral density in pre- and postmenopausal women. Peak bone mass in young girls can be improved with short bouts of school-based high-impact plyometric exercise programs. Whole-body vibration exercises have no beneficial effects on bone in postmenopausal or elderly women. Conclusions and Implications: Lifelong exercise, specific for age, is an effective way to sustain bone health in girls and women. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Lucia A.,European University at Madrid | Zihong H.,China Institute of Sport Science | Ruiz J.R.,Karolinska Institutet
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2010

Recent research has analyzed the genetic factors that influence world-class athletic status. Much of what we know comes from association studies, with the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms having been extensively studied. The association between the ACTN3 R577X variation and elite athlete status in power sports is strongly documented, yet whether the current body of knowledge on other variants can be extrapolated to athletic champion status remains to be determined. Athletic champion status is a complex polygenic trait in which numerous candidate genes, complex gene-gene interactions, and environment-gene interactions are involved. Besides the need for more studies and new approaches taking into account the complexity of the problem., we believe that factors beyond genetic endowment are likely to have a stronger influence in the attainment of athletic champion status. © Human Kinetics, Inc.

Hao W.-Y.,China Institute of Sport Science
Yiyong Shengwu Lixue/Journal of Medical Biomechanics | Year: 2011

The method of biomechanical modeling and computer simulation for human movement has been widely used in such research fields as elucidating physiological mechanisms of different kinds of movements, investigating the causes of sports injuries, helping to promote sports performances and to prevent injuries for athletes. Such method involves mathematical modeling on a series of physiological, anatomical and mechanical characteristics of human bones, joints, muscles and nerves. Muscle forces exerted during movements can be estimated using algorithms based on such models. Meanwhile, simulation experiments can be performed and make the results visualized by using computer software. This paper will review the biomechanical modeling and computer simulation of human movement and its application in details.

Tian Y.,China Institute of Sport Science | Nie J.,Macao Polytechnic Institute | Huang C.,Shanghai University of Sport | George K.P.,Liverpool John Moores University
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

The nature and kinetics of postexercise cardiac troponin (cTn) appearance is poorly described and understood in most athlete populations. We compared the kinetics of high-sensitivity cTn T (hs-cTnT) after endurance running in training-matched adolescents and adults. Thirteen male adolescent (mean age:14.1 ± 1.1 yr) and 13 male adult (24.0 ± 3.6 yr) runners performed a 90-min constant-load treadmill run at 95% of ventilatory threshold. Serum hs-cTnT levels were assessed preexercise, immediately postexercise, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 24 h postexercise. Serum NH2-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) levels were recorded preexercise and 3, 6, and 24 h postexercise. Left ventricular function was assessed preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 6 h postexercise. Peak hs-cTnT occurred at 3-4 h postexercise in all subjects, but was substantially higher (P < 0.05) in adolescents [median (range):211.0 (11.2-794.5) ng/l] compared with adults [median (range):19.1 (9.7-305.6) ng/l]. Peak hs-cTnT was followed by a rapid decrease in both groups, although adolescent data had not returned to baseline at 24 h. Substantial interindividual variability was noted in peak hs-cTnT, especially in the adolescents. NT-pro-BNP was significantly elevated postexercise in both adults and adolescents and remained above baseline at 24 h in both groups. In both groups, left ventricular ejection fraction and the ratio of early-to-atrial peak Doppler flow velocities were significantly decreased immediately postexercise. Peak hs-cTnT was not related to changes in ejection fraction, ratio of early-to-atrial peak Doppler flow velocities, or NT-pro-BNP. The present data suggest that postexercise hs-cTnT elevation 1) occurred in all runners, 2) peaked 3-4 h postexercise, and 3) the peak hs-cTnT concentration after prolonged exercise was higher in adolescents than adults.

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