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Jiang M.,Health Science University | Zhou Z.,China Institute of Policy and Management | Wu L.,Health Science University | Shen Q.,Health Science University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy | Year: 2014

Background In 2009, China implemented the National Essential Medicines System (NEMS) to improve access to high-quality low-cost essential medicines. Objective To measure the prices, availability and affordability of medicines in China following the implementation of the NEMS. Setting 120 public hospitals and 120 private pharmacies in ten cities in Shaanxi Province, Western China. Method The standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to collect data on prices and availability of 49 medicines. Main outcome measures Median price ratio; availability as a percentage; cost of course of treatment in days’ wages of the lowest-paid government workers. Results In the public hospitals, originator brands (OBs) were procured at 8.89 times the international reference price, more than seven times higher than the lowest-priced generics (LPGs). Patients paid 11.83 and 1.69 times the international reference prices for OBs and generics respectively. A similar result was observed in the private pharmacies. The mean availabilities of OBs and LPGs were 7.1 and 20.0 % in the public hospitals, and 12.6 and 29.2 % in the private pharmacies. Treatment with OBs is therefore largely unaffordable, but the affordability of the LPGs is generally good. Conclusion High prices and low availability of survey medicines were observed. The affordability of generics, but not OBs, is reasonable. Effective measures should be taken to reduce medicine prices and improve availability and affordability in Shaanxi Province. © 2014, Koninklijke Nederlandse Maatschappij ter bevordering der Pharmacie.

Zhang X.,China Institute of Policy and Management | De Pablos P.O.,University of Oviedo | Zhu H.,Capital University of Economics and Business
International Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2012

3Dvirtual world has been widely applied in e-learning project, as its several advantages like3Davatar, rich communication channels. This study focuses on a case of famous virtual world (i.e., Second Life, SL) application in on-line engineering education project. Based on the theory of IT capabilities, we investigated how SL provides value for on-line team as improving their knowledge work outcome. The findings suggested that SL may influence team leaning from two levels. First, at individual level, SL generally positive related to the individual knowledge work, including coding language skills, and personal creativity. Second, at team level, SL positively influence the team learning, by providing rich social resources, social networks, and efficient team dynamics. However, SL also has some disadvantages which may disturb the team learning, like advertising information's, gambling, and sex. We suggest the project must provide some rules to limit students to access information's unrelated to class objectives. © 2012 TEMPUS Publications.

Zhang X.,China Institute of Policy and Management | De Pablos P.O.,University of Oviedo | Zhang Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology
International Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2012

Knowledge contribution is a very important issue in online engineering education. This study investigates how to encourage knowledge contribution in a large Asia online engineering education project. Based on long-term empirical research, we found economic incentive is more critical to facilitate explicit knowledge contribution, while social incentive is more important in encouraging tacit knowledge contribution. Moreover, we also found incentives may have different effects due to students' individual difference, e.g., personal value. That is, economic incentive may have positive effect on some students, but none or negative to others. These findings provides some theoretical contributions on e-learning and knowledge management, and also provides some implications for choosing technology in online engineering education system, and designing incentive mechanism. © 2012 TEMPUS Publications.

Zhang X.,Tianjin University | Ma H.,Capital University of Economics and Business | Wu Y.,Beijing Jiaotong University | De Pablos P.O.,University of Oviedo | Wang W.,China Institute of Policy and Management
International Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2014

The cloud computing (CC) is an important emerging information technology for the information resource optimizing. In this case study, we applied CC technology in the quality engineering education platform design process, and investigated the effects of CCon saving resources, optimizing process, and education innovations. First, we described the designing and applying process of CC education platform. Then, we designed a measuring software aided method on evaluating quality of CC application. Finally, a standard was applied to evaluate university laboratory's management abilityon CC platform. By applying cloud computing technology in quality engineering courses, and providing evaluating method, this research has both teaching and research implications for engineering education, like teaching students how to management cloud computing platform with "learn by doing" model. © 2014 TEMPUS Publications.

Zhou Z.,Tongji University | Fang Y.,City University of Hong Kong | Vogel D.,City University of Hong Kong | Jin X.-L.,Shanghai University | Zhang X.,China Institute of Policy and Management
Journal of Management Information Systems | Year: 2012

Internet-based social virtual world (SVW) services have aroused extensive interest among academicians and practitioners. The success of SVW services depends heavily on customers' continuance usage, a topic not yet adequately investigated in information systems research. It is unclear to what extent, and how, the existing theories can be extended to explain the continuance usage of such services. In consideration of the distinctive features of these services, this study adapts the dedication-constraint framework of commitment and develops a model of SVW continuance, which is assessed empirically using data collected from 438 experienced users of Second Life, a typical SVW service. Results indicate that SVW customers' continuance intention is jointly determined by two mechanisms: affective commitment (being attracted to) and calculative commitment (being locked in), with the former playing a more central role. Perceived utilitarian value, hedonic value, and relational capital promote affective commitment directly and indirectly through satisfaction, while service-specific investments in personalization and relational capital increase calculative commitment. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are subsequently discussed. © 2012 M.E. Sharpe, Inc. All rights reserved.

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