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Wang S.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Wang S.,Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine | Hao L.-J.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Zhu J.-J.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | And 7 more authors.
Phytomedicine | Year: 2014

The traditional after-harvesting drying method of C. morifolium cv. Hang-ju (HJ) is sun drying, but recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used as a cheap and convenient method. However, the effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents and potential activities of HJ were unknown. A comprehensively comparison of the chemical profiles between non-fumigated HJ (NHJ) and sulfur-fumigated HJ (SHJ) was conducted by HPLC fingerprints analysis and the discrepant peaks were identified or tentatively assigned by HPLC-ESI/MSn. Dramatic chemical changes were found that the contents of 4 flavonoid aglycones remarkably increased while those of 7 glycosides significantly reduced which suggested that sulfur-fumigation induced flavonoid glycosides transformed into aglycons by hydrolysis reaction. A significant loss of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids showed the sulfur fumigation was a destructive effect on HJ. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to rapidly discriminate NHJ and SHJ samples. By ICP-OES analysis, it was found that the residue of sulfur of SHJ were three times higher than NHJ (p < 0.05). The antioxidant activity of NHJ and SHJ were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assay, and the results showed that NHJ had much stronger antioxidant activities than SCF (p < 0.05). Combining the results of chemical analysis, residue of sulfur and pharmacological evaluation, it showed that the sulfur fumigation was a destructive effect on HJ. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. Source


Wang S.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Wang S.,Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine | Hao L.-J.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Zhu J.-J.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | And 5 more authors.
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2015

Chrysanthemum Flos (CF), the dry capitulum of the Compositae family of plants, is used in herbal medicine and as tea material in China, as well as other areas of Asia and northeastern Europe. Evidence indicates it may have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective function. We developed a HPLC coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) method to identify and characterize the main chemical components of CF from nine origins, including different species, cultivars, and adulterations, using relative response factors (RRFs). The readily available active component chlorogenic acid was selected as the reference compound for calculating the RRFs of the other seven analytes, including luteolin, quercetin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, 3,5-dicaffeoylquninic acid, linarin, apigenin, diosmetin, and acacetin. Their RRFs against chlorogenic acid at 340 nm were between 0.506 and 1.103. The variation of RRFs on three columns and two HPLC systems was less than 3.8 %, with good reproducibility. Using the RRFs, the main components of CF were quantified. Furthermore, based on their quantitative comparison results, hierachical clustering analysis (HCA) was employed to differentiate the various origins of CF. The proposed method is appropriate for rapid discrimination of the different origins of CF. It is especially useful for the quantitative analysis of CF when the reference standards of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids are not readily available. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Shi D.,Jilin Agricultural University | Zhang Z.,China Green Food Development Center | Li G.,China Agricultural University | Zhang H.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2010

Based on 0-15 mm screened municipal solid waste from Beijing Majialou Municipal Solid Waste Transfer Station, the research using closed static technology was conducted in the tunnels of Nan Gong Composting Factory to understand the feasibility of small size municipal solid waste composting and select the optimum heap high of composting. Four treatments were arranged, which had different heap heights namely 2.5, 2.0, 1.5 and 1.0 m, respectively. Samples taken from each treatment after eight day of high temperature composting were analyzed with the maturity indexes including electric conductivity (EC), E4/E6, water soluable carbon (WSC), NH4 +-N, C/N, germination index (GI), value of fecal coliform, which was combined with a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to evaluate the maturity. The results showed that 0-15 mm municipal solid waste could be composted individually, and the optimum maturity heap heights were 1.5 m and 1.0 m. But the optimum heap height of tunnel composting was 1.5 m when there was more integration. Source


Li Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Dong F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xu J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2010

A simple enantioselective HPLC method was developed for measuring carfentrazoneethyl enantiomers. The separation and determination was accomplished on an amylose tris[(S)-α-methylbenzylcarbamate] (Chiralpak AS) column using n-hexane/ethanol (98:2, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 248 nm. The effects of mobile-phase composition and column temperature on the enantioseparation were discussed. The accuracy, precision, linearity, LODs, and LOQ of the method were also investigated. LOD was 0.001 mg/kg in water, 0.015 mg/kg in soil and wheat, with an LOQ of 0.0025 mg/kg in water and 0.05 mg/kg in soil and wheat for each enantiomer of carfentrazone-ethyl. SPE was used for the enrichment and cleanup of soil, water, and wheat samples. Recoveries for two enantiomers were 88.4-106.7% with RSDr of 4.2-9.8% at 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg levels from soil, 85.8-99.5% with the RSDr of 4.4-9.6% at 0.005, 0.025, and 0.05 mg/kg levels from water, and from wheat the recoveries were 86.3-91.3% with RSD r below 5.0% at 0.2, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg levels. This method could be used to identify and quantify the carfentrazone-ethyl enantiomers in food and environment. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Source


Zhang Q.,China Agricultural University | Xiang J.,China Agricultural University | Xiang J.,China Green Food Development Center | Zhang L.,China Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2014

Germinated brown rice is a well-known functional food due to its high content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This study was designed to test the difference of producing GABA in two domesticated rice genotypes (indica and japonica rice), and the effects of adding exogenous glutamic acid or gibberellin, and processing conditions. Soaking at 30°C and germination at 35°C during 36h resulted in the highest GABA in distilled soaking water with pH7. The indica rice showed higher GABA levels than japonica rice. GABA was increased under acidic soaking conditions or by adding L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) at the optimal concentration of 1.0gL-1 and gibberellin A3 (GA3) at the optimal concentration of 0.25mgL-1. The lower accumulation of GABA in japonica rice could be remedied by adding exogenous L-Glu and GA3, and providing acidic soaking conditions. The results help to efficiently produce GABA enriched functional food. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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