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Lai P.,Providence University | Li K.Y.,Tunghai University | Lu S.,China Grain Products Research and Development Institute | Chen H.H.,National Penghu University of Science and Technology
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Various dietary fibres (DF) from rice flours of Taichung Sen 10 (TCS10) and Tainung 67 (TNu67) rice cultivars were isolated while their roles in governing the pasting and the rheological properties of the rice starch were examined. The addition of DF (at 5 wt.% on dry starch basis), most notably from TCS10 cultivar generally caused significant increases in swelling power and pasting viscosities of 10 wt.% rice starch dispersions. Furthermore, the addition of DF was found to improve the rheological parameters of the 10 wt.% rice starch gel. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements revealed that the water mobility of starch gel was decreased with the addition of DF. The statistically significant factors were concluded to be arabinoxylan-related compositions for the increments of pasting and rheological characteristics, meanwhile the swelling power and setback viscosity mainly depend on β-glucan compositions and arabinose-to-xylose molar ratio (RAX). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Lu S.,China Grain Products Research and Development Institute | Lu S.,National Chung Hsing University | Cik T.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Lii C.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 2 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The susceptibility of cooked rice to α-amylolysis were studied in four Taiwanese rice cultivars differing in amylose contents, i.e. Taichung Native 1(TCN1, indica), Taigung 9 (TG9, japonica), Taichung Sen Waxy 1 (TCSW1, indica waxy), and Taichung Waxy 70 (TCW70, japonica waxy). In addition, the correlation between α-amylolysis and the microstructure and textural properties of the four rice cultivars was investigated. The hardness, gumminess and chewiness of cooked rice followed the order of TCN1>TG9>TCS>t;TCW70. However the waxy rice cultivars showed a higher extent and rate of α-amylolysis. Using scanning electron microscopy, the microstructure revealed that the low-amylose rice and waxy rice cultivars contained hollow in the central endosperm. The internal hollow disappeared after α-amylolysis, indicating that α-amylase had penetrated the cooked grain, resulting in the inside-out hydrolysis. These results indicated that the textural properties of cooked rice are influenced mainly by its amylose/amylopectin ratio, followed by influencing the pattern of α-amylolysis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lin M.-H.A.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Wu M.-C.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Lu S.,China Grain Products Research and Development Institute | Lin J.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2010

AIM: To determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and insulinemic index (II) of five starchy foods that are commonly used in Chinese diets. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects aged between 20-30 years were recruited. Each subject was asked to consume 50 g of available carbohydrate portions of test foods and reference food. Finger capillary blood samples were collected at the start of eating and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after consumption. The GI and II of foods were calculated from the ratio of incremental area under the glucose/insulin response curves of test and reference foods. The GL for each test food was determined from its GI value and carbohydrate content. RESULTS: The results showed that brown rice elicited the highest postprandial glucose and insulin responses, followed by taro, adlay, yam and mung bean noodles, which produced the lowest. Among the five starchy foods, brown rice evoked the highest GI and GL at 82 ± 0.2 and 18 ± 0.2, followed by taro (69 ± 0.4, 12 ± 0.2), adlay (55 ± 0.4, 10 ± 0.2), yam (52 ± 0.3, 9 ± 0.0) and mung bean noodles (28 ± 0.5, 7 ± 0.2), respectively. The II values of the test foods corresponded with GI values. Similarly, brown rice gave the highest II at 81 ± 0.1, followed by taro (73 ± 0.3), adlay (67 ± 0.3), yam (64 ± 0.5) and mung bean noodles (38 ± 0.3). All five starchy foods had lower GI, GL and II than reference bread (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The GI, GL and II values of starchy foods provide important information for the public to manage their diet and could be useful for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes mellitus. © 2010 Baishideng. Source

Lin S.-Y.,Chinese Culture University | Chen H.-H.,National Penghu University of Science and Technology | Lu S.,China Grain Products Research and Development Institute | Wang P.-C.,Chinese Culture University
Journal of Texture Studies | Year: 2012

Steamed bread is a fermented wheat flour product that is cooked by being steamed in a steamer. The properties of dough and the quality of steamed bread incorporated with barley flour at 10, 20 and 30% substitution levels are investigated. Increasing levels of barley flour correspondingly decreases the gluten content and increases the β-glucan content. Upon incorporation of barley flour, the dough development time, departure time and stability time are decreased, but the mixing tolerance index is increased. The incorporation of barley flour into wheat flour also significantly decreases the extensibility, increases the value of R/E ratio and decreases the value of work input. In addition, increased levels of barley flour cause significant decreases in the specific volume, brightness and whiteness index of steamed bread, as well as increases in hardness and chewiness. This study also shows that six-row barley pearl flour contains more dietary fiber and has a more favorable influence than barley endosperm flour. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.. Source

Lu S.,China Grain Products Research and Development Institute | Lu S.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen J.-J.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chen Y.-K.,National Chung Hsing University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2011

Three rice starches from indica (TNuS19), japonica (TNu67) and waxy (TCW70) were used as samples to investigate the water mobility, viscoelasticity and textural properties of starch gels using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (PNMR), dynamic rheometer and texture analyzer. The spin-spin relaxation time (T2), showed water mobility of starch gels was detected with starch concentrations 10-30%. Generally, the TNuS19 and TNu67 at ≥20% showed two components (T2a and T2b) in water mobility, where T2a and T2b related to solid-like and liquid-like water molecules in starch gels, respectively. However, the TCW70 over the concentrations examined had only T2b component, higher than those of corresponding TNuS19 and TNu67. The storage (G') and loss (G″) moduli of starch gels were in the order of TNuS19 > TNu67 > TCW70. Texture analyzer analysis indicated that TNuS19 had higher hardness, stickiness and adhesiveness than did the TNu67 and TCW70, and changed significantly with the starch concentration increase. The value of T2b was highly correlated with physical properties of starch gels, especially with dynamic rheological parameters. It is suggested that amylose content may play a major role to influence the water mobility of starch gels which affects the specific viscoelasticity and textural properties of starch gels. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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