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Ma J.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute | Xiao Z.-J.,Nanjing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources
Geology in China | Year: 2013

Exemplified by data quality control of China's mineral resources potential evaluation special project, this paper put forward the data quality control process for the very complex problem domain, systematically illuminated the essential models, methods and techniques of the data quality control, and briefly described the design idea and implementation of the data quality control software system as well as the related research achievements. Practices have verified the effectiveness, feasibility, practicability and representativeness of the data quality control models, methods and techniques,and the results obtained have certain reference significance and application value. The methods and techniques have a very good demonstration effect and application prospect, are suitable for the work of data quality control of various geological spatial data ptoject.


Yueping Y.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute | Jinhe L.,Chongqing Three Gorges University
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

Xiluodu hydropower station is located on the Jinsha River, the upper course of the Yangtze River, and is the third largest hydropower station in the world. In May 2013, impoundment of the Xiluodu Reservoir started and preliminarily operation began, and the reservoir area was subject to frequent landslides and collapses. On 23rd July 2013, Huangping landslide, with a volume of 20 × 104m3, slid into the Xiluodu Reservoir and generated an impulse water wave that killed 12 people on the opposite bank. The reservoir water level will fluctuate by 60 m each year, between the elevations of 540 and 600 m, so any impulse wave generated by a landslide in the reservoir is a major concern in the preliminary impoundment phase. Ganhaizi landslide is the biggest landslide in Xiluodu Reservoir, with a volume of about 7,800 × 104 m3. This landslide is only 14 km upstream from the Xiluodu Dam. In particular, the landslide deformation has obviously intensified after impounding. This paper analyzes the terrain and deformation features of Ganhaizi landslide, and we propose that sliding on the Ganhaizi slope may occur at the front part of the landslide. The front part of landslide has a volume of around 300 × 104m3; the elevation of the barycenter of this part is 510 m. The sliding mass is thus largely underwater, and can pose a threat mainly in the form of surges. Based on the underwater landslide terrain in the mountain reservoir area, the authors have modified the seabed landslide-generated surge source model of Grilli and Watts (2005) to form an initial source model for an underwater landslide-generated surge. Using this model, the authors predicted possible surge disasters that can be caused by a Ganhaizi landslide at both the dead water level of 540 m and the normal water level of 600 m in Xiluodu Reservoir. The surge disaster might mainly strike the area within 5 km along the river channel both upstream and downstream of the landslide area, but generally poses no threat to Xiluodu Dam. This paper aims to provide technical support for the safety of Xiluodu Dam and the reservoir area. The newly established underwater landslide-generated surge initial source model for mountain reservoir areas may serve as reference for calculation of underwater landslide in other reservoir areas around the world. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Yueping Y.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute | Zhibing J.,Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

After the Gongjiafang tsunami incident, the China Geological Survey recognized the extreme importance of subaerial landslide-generated tsunamis (SLGT) in the Three Gorges Reservoir, western China. The experimental models presented in the present paper were rooted in two common failure types of high, steep slopes in the Three Gorges Reservoir. One model represents a rigid rock plunging into the water and the other is a granular cluster sliding into the water. A wide range of effective parameters were considered and studied by performing 74 laboratory tests. The effects of bed slope angle, water depth, slide impact velocity, geometry (three-dimensional size of the rigid block and grain size of the granular cluster), and volume on impulse wave characteristics were examined. Slide kinematics and impulsive wave features, such as wave shape, amplitude, run-up, and run-down, were studied and compared. Experiments showed that the failure type of the rock mass plays a key role in SLGT and strongly influences air-fluid-solid interaction. Thus, to forecast SLGT rapidly, the zone of complicated air-solid-fluid interaction can be treated as a "black box" whose output is a water wave with definable characteristics, such as amplitude. Based on the experimental results, two dimensionless equations for the estimation of primary wave maximum amplitude were developed and successfully verified for the two failure types. The study provides basic information needed to forecast tsunamis generated by slopes with the potential to fail in other reservoirs around the world. These data can also be a very useful resource for theoretical analysis or numerical model validation. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wei X.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Wei X.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute | Ruilin H.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Tiefeng L.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute
Disaster Advances | Year: 2013

Based on the field geological investigation and the slope mass strength test, formation mechanism of the Hekou sugar-refinery landslide which occurred in August 2007 wasascertained. The test result showed that the mass strength including cohesion and internal friction angle decreased with the increasing mass water content. The slide mass strength value was bigger than that of the slide zone at the same mass water content. The mass cohesion variation trend with the water content represented a relationship of exponential function. The mass internal friction angle variation with the mass water content represented linear relation. The three-year displacement monitoring data showed that the landslide was stable from 2009 to 2011. The monitoring is of great importance in future for early warning of the neighborhood safety.


Li B.H.,Beijing Institute of Water | Cao X.J.,China University of Geosciences | Cao X.J.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute | Liu L.C.,Beijing Institute of Water | And 2 more authors.
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

Groundwater heat pump (GWHP) systems in three different hydrogeological fields, Beijing were selected, and their effects on temperature of groundwater in recharged aquifer were researched for three years. Results showed that the degree of thermal breakthrough was controlled by the distance between pumping wells and injection wells, and the temperature of groundwater with high flow rate can recover to normal faster than those with low flow rate. When distance between pumping wells and injection wells were shorter than 30m, thermal breakthrough may happen and the variation range of groundwater temperature during one heating or cooling period was 8~12℃.However, thermal breakthrough can be negligible and the temperature of groundwater may be steady when the distance between those wells was longer than 50m. Furthermore, GWHP in two different hydrogeological fields were selected to observe their effects on groundwater quality for one year. One GWHP was situated on the northwest piedmont alluvial fan of Beijing and the other was located in the southeast plain area of Beijing. Groundwater was sampled from those fields and thirty-two inorganic components were analyzed. Heavy metals were not detected, and calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, fluoride and other ten inorganic components were studied. Groundwater quality in the northwest of Beijing was relatively steady because that aquifer was in relative oxidation environment. However, groundwater quality in the southeast of Beijing was subject to change because that aquifer was in relative reduction environment. Nitration reaction happened in the plain area, and ammonia, nitrite converted into nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen, respectively. Simultaneously, pH, concentrations of iron and manganese decreased, and total hardness increased. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Sun L.,CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research | Sun L.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute | Liao X.,CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research | Yan X.,CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

The heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents were evaluated in surface soil and plant samples of 18 wild species collected from 3 typical industrial sites in South Central China. The accumulative characteristics of the plant species for both heavy metal and PAHs were discussed. The simultaneous accumulation of heavy metal and PAHs in plant and soil was observed at all the investigated sites, although disparities in spatial distributions among sites occurred. Both plant and soil samples were characterized by high accumulation for heavy metal at smelting site, moderate enrichment at coke power and coal mining sites, whereas high level of PAHs (16 priority pollutants according to US Environmental Protection Agency) at coke power site, followed sequentially by coal mining and smelting sites. Based on the differences of heavy metal and PAH accumulation behaviors of the studied plant species, heavy metal and PAH accumulation strategies were suggested: Pteris vittata L. and Pteris cretica L. for As and PAHs, Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud for Pb, As, and PAHs, and Miscanthus floridulu (Labnll.) Warb for Cu and PAHs. These native plant species could be proposed as promising materials for heavy metal and PAHs combined pollution remediation. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zhang Y.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Cheng Y.,Sichuan Academy of Geological Survey | Yin Y.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute | Lan H.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | And 2 more authors.
Engineering Geology | Year: 2014

After the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, a special type of long-term active compounded geohazard, namely high-position debris flow, frequently occurred in the seismic area. 136 high-position debris flow gullies were recognized from the 796 active debris flow gullies to investigate distinctive characteristics of such debris flows in terms of their geomorphological conditions, spatial distribution and causal factors. They usually initiate at high steep slopes and have high mobility and long runout. High-position debris flows have significantly larger magnitude and destructive force than those of common debris flows observed in the regions not affected by recent large earthquake. The high-position debris flows have been recognized as the most threatening geohazards among post-earthquake geological disasters in the Wenchuan earthquake region. Detailed investigation on 45 debris flows suggests three quantitative indices for recognizing the high-position debris flows: (i) the height difference between the material source and the debris flow exit or gully mouth should be larger than 350m; (ii) the volume of source debris accumulation should be bigger than 1.0×106m3; and (iii) the gradient ratio of a debris flow channel should be steeper than 270‰. The spatial distribution of high-position debris flows was highly controlled by the seismogenic fault. Due to the abundant loose materials caused by earthquake, the rainfall threshold triggering high-position debris flows was found to have decreased at least 36.4-63.7% when compared to the pre-earthquake one. Three disaster-forming models have been identified for the high-position debris flows in the Wenchuan earthquake region. The long-term post-earthquake effect of high-position debris flow is becoming more concerned in the area of high intensity. The characteristics of long-term activity of high-position debris flows using a case study indicate a 15years of extremely active period after a strong earthquake such as the Wenchuan one. A number of issues regarding the classification, investigation, runout prediction and controlling measures for high-position debris flow are discussed to provide insight into the foundation for high-position debris flow mitigation and its risk assessment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Liao Q.-L.,Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province | Liu C.,Jiangsu Bureau of Land Resources | Wang Y.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute | Jin Y.,Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province | And 3 more authors.
Geology in China | Year: 2015

On the basis of collecting and testing about 416 couples of rice seeds and the cultivated soil samples from Suxichang typical area of Jiangsu Province, a series of geochemical data related to Cd distribution and other relative elements concentrations since 2011 was obtained. By studying and analyzing these data, the authors confirmed that rice uptake of Cd from soil is mainly controlled by such geochemical factors as cadmium, zinc, selenium, pH, organic matter (OM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) within the cultivated soil. Some conclusions have been reached: 1) When the pH is lower than 7.0 in soil and BCF (Bioconcentration Factor) is larger than 10% in milled rice, there exists obvious positive correlative relationship between Cd concentration of milled rice and Cd and Zn content within soil, and their correlation coefficients are above 0.67; bioactivity of cadmium in farmland soils is higher in most cases; there exists more significant correlative relationship between Cd of rice and bioavailable Cd of soil than total Cd within soil if cadmium content from the cultivated soil reflects only exchangeable and weak acid-soluble fraction, with the correlation coefficient larger than 0.7;2) Se, OM and CEC could inhibit the rice uptake of Cd from the cultivated soil, and there exists a significant negative correlation between Cd concentration of milled rice and Se, OM and CEC concentrations within the soil under some limited conditions, with the correlation coefficients being less than - 0.5;3) Soil acidification could stimulate the increase of Cd content in the milled rice, when Cd concentration of milled rice is larger than 0.2mg/kg and its OM is equal to 2.5%∼ 6.5%, and there yet exists significant negative correlation between Cd concentration of milled rice and pH in the cultivated soil, with the correlation coefficient smaller than -0.6;4) the Cd distribution in different rice organs is not uniform, from the roots to the upper rice organs, the Cd content in rice gradually reduced, and it is obvious that root rice organs could play a greater role in absorption of Cd from the cultivated soil during the rice growth.


Li L.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Li L.,Beijing University of Technology | Yao X.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Zhang Y.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Geological Bulletin of China | Year: 2015

The near-field deformation is not only important for earthquake forecast and Neotectonics study but also important for the service to engineering geology. Adopting PS-InSAR(Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar)technology and using L band data, the authors conducted the survey of near-field deformation around Bamei-Daofu section of Xianshuihe active fault from 2007 to 2011 and, based on analysis in combination with other materials, inferred some complex fault near-field deformation information: 1; the deformation velocity of the north section is larger than that of the north section, and velocities on the two sides of the fault are somewhat different from each other, the velocity of SW wall is large than that of NE wall, the velocity difference of the far-field is more significant, and the velocity of the near-field is feeble; 2; in area close to the active faulted zone, the values of PS(Persistent Scatterer)points deformation velocities are mainly comparatively small negative and positive values, reflecting the surface ascent and suggesting that the location is composed mainly of wet land, exposed point of ground water, bank and gully. It is inferred that these phenomena are attributed to surface bulging and deformation caused by weather warming-glaciers melting-uplift of ground water level, the tendency uplift of wet land resulting from seasonal frost heaving, and certain expansibility of cataclastic rock and soil near the faulted zone; 3; the uplift deformation around Zhonggu-Bamei section results from the thrust movement near Xianshuihe fault, and the ductile shear zone absorbs and coordinates the entire block deformation; 4; high deformation PS blocks reflect the slope gravity deformation, especially in sections of Daofu-shonglinkou and Qianning basin-Longdengba, revealing the geohazard effects of the fault; 5; the precise PS-InSAR results show that the deformation of the fault is complex and shows remarkable differences in different sections, different periods and different tectonic locations, so we can't simply consider the movement to be overall translation or elevation-subsidence with the faulted zone as the boundary. ©, 2015, China Geological Survey. All right reserved.


Zhang Y.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Cheng Y.,Sichuan Academy of Geological Survey | Yin Y.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute | Wang J.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences
Global View of Engineering Geology and the Environment - Proceedings of the International Symposium and 9th Asian Regional Conference of IAEG | Year: 2013

The high-position debris flow is a kind of debris flows characteristic of the Wenchuan earthquake region. As a conception, it graps the main points of the post-earthquake geological disasters there, that is, the long-term lasting and exetremly destructive force of high-position debris flows. This kind of debris flows can be recognized using the following indexes: the height difference between the material source and the debris flow exit or the gully mouth is more than 350 m; (2) the volume of source accumulation is equal to or more than 60 × 104 m3; and (3) the gradient ratio of a debris flow channel way or gully is equal to or more than 270‰. The control of high-position debris flow gullies is a difficult task which people in the earthquake region would confront in the coming several ten years. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN.

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