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Liao Q.-L.,Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province | Liu C.,Jiangsu Bureau of Land Resources | Wang Y.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute | Jin Y.,Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province | And 3 more authors.
Geology in China

On the basis of collecting and testing about 416 couples of rice seeds and the cultivated soil samples from Suxichang typical area of Jiangsu Province, a series of geochemical data related to Cd distribution and other relative elements concentrations since 2011 was obtained. By studying and analyzing these data, the authors confirmed that rice uptake of Cd from soil is mainly controlled by such geochemical factors as cadmium, zinc, selenium, pH, organic matter (OM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) within the cultivated soil. Some conclusions have been reached: 1) When the pH is lower than 7.0 in soil and BCF (Bioconcentration Factor) is larger than 10% in milled rice, there exists obvious positive correlative relationship between Cd concentration of milled rice and Cd and Zn content within soil, and their correlation coefficients are above 0.67; bioactivity of cadmium in farmland soils is higher in most cases; there exists more significant correlative relationship between Cd of rice and bioavailable Cd of soil than total Cd within soil if cadmium content from the cultivated soil reflects only exchangeable and weak acid-soluble fraction, with the correlation coefficient larger than 0.7;2) Se, OM and CEC could inhibit the rice uptake of Cd from the cultivated soil, and there exists a significant negative correlation between Cd concentration of milled rice and Se, OM and CEC concentrations within the soil under some limited conditions, with the correlation coefficients being less than - 0.5;3) Soil acidification could stimulate the increase of Cd content in the milled rice, when Cd concentration of milled rice is larger than 0.2mg/kg and its OM is equal to 2.5%∼ 6.5%, and there yet exists significant negative correlation between Cd concentration of milled rice and pH in the cultivated soil, with the correlation coefficient smaller than -0.6;4) the Cd distribution in different rice organs is not uniform, from the roots to the upper rice organs, the Cd content in rice gradually reduced, and it is obvious that root rice organs could play a greater role in absorption of Cd from the cultivated soil during the rice growth. Source

Sun L.,CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research | Sun L.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute | Liao X.,CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research | Yan X.,CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research

The heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents were evaluated in surface soil and plant samples of 18 wild species collected from 3 typical industrial sites in South Central China. The accumulative characteristics of the plant species for both heavy metal and PAHs were discussed. The simultaneous accumulation of heavy metal and PAHs in plant and soil was observed at all the investigated sites, although disparities in spatial distributions among sites occurred. Both plant and soil samples were characterized by high accumulation for heavy metal at smelting site, moderate enrichment at coke power and coal mining sites, whereas high level of PAHs (16 priority pollutants according to US Environmental Protection Agency) at coke power site, followed sequentially by coal mining and smelting sites. Based on the differences of heavy metal and PAH accumulation behaviors of the studied plant species, heavy metal and PAH accumulation strategies were suggested: Pteris vittata L. and Pteris cretica L. for As and PAHs, Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud for Pb, As, and PAHs, and Miscanthus floridulu (Labnll.) Warb for Cu and PAHs. These native plant species could be proposed as promising materials for heavy metal and PAHs combined pollution remediation. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Yueping Y.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute | Jinhe L.,Chongqing Three Gorges University
Environmental Earth Sciences

Xiluodu hydropower station is located on the Jinsha River, the upper course of the Yangtze River, and is the third largest hydropower station in the world. In May 2013, impoundment of the Xiluodu Reservoir started and preliminarily operation began, and the reservoir area was subject to frequent landslides and collapses. On 23rd July 2013, Huangping landslide, with a volume of 20 × 104m3, slid into the Xiluodu Reservoir and generated an impulse water wave that killed 12 people on the opposite bank. The reservoir water level will fluctuate by 60 m each year, between the elevations of 540 and 600 m, so any impulse wave generated by a landslide in the reservoir is a major concern in the preliminary impoundment phase. Ganhaizi landslide is the biggest landslide in Xiluodu Reservoir, with a volume of about 7,800 × 104 m3. This landslide is only 14 km upstream from the Xiluodu Dam. In particular, the landslide deformation has obviously intensified after impounding. This paper analyzes the terrain and deformation features of Ganhaizi landslide, and we propose that sliding on the Ganhaizi slope may occur at the front part of the landslide. The front part of landslide has a volume of around 300 × 104m3; the elevation of the barycenter of this part is 510 m. The sliding mass is thus largely underwater, and can pose a threat mainly in the form of surges. Based on the underwater landslide terrain in the mountain reservoir area, the authors have modified the seabed landslide-generated surge source model of Grilli and Watts (2005) to form an initial source model for an underwater landslide-generated surge. Using this model, the authors predicted possible surge disasters that can be caused by a Ganhaizi landslide at both the dead water level of 540 m and the normal water level of 600 m in Xiluodu Reservoir. The surge disaster might mainly strike the area within 5 km along the river channel both upstream and downstream of the landslide area, but generally poses no threat to Xiluodu Dam. This paper aims to provide technical support for the safety of Xiluodu Dam and the reservoir area. The newly established underwater landslide-generated surge initial source model for mountain reservoir areas may serve as reference for calculation of underwater landslide in other reservoir areas around the world. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Yueping Y.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute | Zhibing J.,Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute
Environmental Earth Sciences

After the Gongjiafang tsunami incident, the China Geological Survey recognized the extreme importance of subaerial landslide-generated tsunamis (SLGT) in the Three Gorges Reservoir, western China. The experimental models presented in the present paper were rooted in two common failure types of high, steep slopes in the Three Gorges Reservoir. One model represents a rigid rock plunging into the water and the other is a granular cluster sliding into the water. A wide range of effective parameters were considered and studied by performing 74 laboratory tests. The effects of bed slope angle, water depth, slide impact velocity, geometry (three-dimensional size of the rigid block and grain size of the granular cluster), and volume on impulse wave characteristics were examined. Slide kinematics and impulsive wave features, such as wave shape, amplitude, run-up, and run-down, were studied and compared. Experiments showed that the failure type of the rock mass plays a key role in SLGT and strongly influences air-fluid-solid interaction. Thus, to forecast SLGT rapidly, the zone of complicated air-solid-fluid interaction can be treated as a "black box" whose output is a water wave with definable characteristics, such as amplitude. Based on the experimental results, two dimensionless equations for the estimation of primary wave maximum amplitude were developed and successfully verified for the two failure types. The study provides basic information needed to forecast tsunamis generated by slopes with the potential to fail in other reservoirs around the world. These data can also be a very useful resource for theoretical analysis or numerical model validation. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Zhang Y.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Cheng Y.,Sichuan Academy of Geological Survey | Yin Y.,China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute | Wang J.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences
Global View of Engineering Geology and the Environment - Proceedings of the International Symposium and 9th Asian Regional Conference of IAEG

The high-position debris flow is a kind of debris flows characteristic of the Wenchuan earthquake region. As a conception, it graps the main points of the post-earthquake geological disasters there, that is, the long-term lasting and exetremly destructive force of high-position debris flows. This kind of debris flows can be recognized using the following indexes: the height difference between the material source and the debris flow exit or the gully mouth is more than 350 m; (2) the volume of source accumulation is equal to or more than 60 × 104 m3; and (3) the gradient ratio of a debris flow channel way or gully is equal to or more than 270‰. The control of high-position debris flow gullies is a difficult task which people in the earthquake region would confront in the coming several ten years. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN. Source

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