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Wang M.,Jiangsu Polytechnic University | Wu W.,China Agricultural University | Xia X.,China Environmental Science Research Institute
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2010

Life cycle assessment was used to establish an inventory of resource use and emissions and to assess life cycle environmental impacts of summer maize production system with different nitrogen fertilizer intensity in Huantai County, Shandong province. The assessment was conducted with per product as the functional unit and the life cycle of the summer maize production system was divided into three phases, including raw material mining & transportation, agricultural production & transportation and crop planting. The results revealed that the life cycle environmental impacts of summer maize production system show an exponential upward trend with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer application. The most significant environmental impact was water depletion because agriculture is a water-intensive industry and water productivity in the study area was low. The most important pollution effect type was global warming at a low nitrogen application rate, but aquatic eutrophication with high nitrogen fertilizer input. As such, to reduce the nitrogen and water consumption as well as to increase their productivities are the key to control the life cycle environmental impacts of summer maize production system, which decrease resource consumption and emissions not only directly in the crop planting stage but also indirectly in the upstream production stage.


Wang M.,Jiangsu Polytechnic University | Xia X.,China Environmental Science Research Institute | Zhang Q.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction | Liu J.,Jiangsu Polytechnic University
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology | Year: 2010

In this study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) method was used to examine the environmental impact of the rice production system in Taihu region, China. The LCA considered the entire system required to produce 1 t of rice. The analysis included raw material extraction and transportation, agrochemical production and transportation, and arable farming in the field. The result shows that the significance of environmental impacts, followed by aquatic eutrophication, water depletion, global warming, acidification, and energy depletion. As such, reducing nitrogen (N) fertilizer intensity and increasing utilization efficiency are the key points to control the life cycle environmental impacts of rice, which would decrease resource consumption and emissions not only directly in the arable farming subsystem but also indirectly in the upstream production stage. Strengthening water management, especially in the early growth stage, and reduction of paddy field water discharge are also significant measures with which to minimize N and phosphorus (P) runoff losses and control acidification potential (AP) and aquatic eutrophication potential (AEP), so as to reduce life cycle environmental impacts of the rice production system. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Wang X.,China Environmental Science Research Institute | Wang X.,Yili Teachers College | Guo Y.,China Environmental Science Research Institute | Liu J.,China Environmental Science Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2010

The study is directed to the use of non-metallic powders obtained from comminuted recycled paper-based printed circuit boards (PCBs) as an additive to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrate. The physical properties of the non-metallic PCB (NMPCB) powders were measured, and the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of the NMPCB/PVC composite material were investigated. The results show that recycled NMPCB powders, when added below a threshold, tended to increase the tensile strength and bending strength of PVC. When 20 wt% NMPCB powders (relative to the substrate PVC) of an average diameter of 0.08 mm were added, the composite tensile strength and bending strength reached 22.6 MPa and 39.83 MPa, respectively, representing 107.2% and 123.1% improvement over pure PVC. The elongation at break of the composite material reached 151.94% of that of pure PVC, while the Vicat softening temperature of the composite material did not increase significantly compared to the pure PVC. The above results suggest that paper-based NMPCB powders, when used at appropriate amounts, can be effective for toughening PVC. Thus, this study suggests a new route for reusing paper-based NMPCB, which may have a significant beneficial environmental impact. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang M.,Changzhou University | Shi Y.,Changzhou University | Xia X.,China Environmental Science Research Institute | Li D.,Changzhou University | Chen Q.,Changzhou University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Life-cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental impacts of sweet potato-based bioethanol production. The scope covered all stages in the life cycle of bioethanol production, including the cultivation and treatment, transport, as well as bioethanol conversion of sweet potato. Results show that the net energy ratio of sweet potato-based bioethanol is 1.48 and the net energy gain is 6.55. MJ/L. Eutrophication is identified as the most significant environmental impact category, followed by acidification, global warming, human toxicity, and photochemical oxidation. Sensitivity analysis reveals that steam consumption during bioethanol conversion exerts the most effect on the results, followed by sweet potato yields and fertilizers input. It is suggested that substituting coal with cleaner energy for steam generation in bioethanol conversion stage and promotion of better management practices in sweet potato cultivation stage could lead to a significant improvement of energy and environmental performance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Xia X.,China Environmental Science Research Institute | Xi B.,China Environmental Science Research Institute | Wang M.,Changzhou University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

In demonstration and promotion of treatment works for rural domestic sewage, the technical solutions should consider not only the treatment technology's effectiveness, but also its economy and suitability for specific rural areas, that is, the advanced and applicable technology should be selected. In this paper, a rural domestic sewage technology evaluation system was established with the analytic hierarchy process as the assessment method to evaluate the alternative technology options and made decision. The indicators quantification and standardization and the weight determination were also promoted. Finally, a case study was conducted. The method can be used as decision support analysis tool in demonstration and promotion of treatment works for rural domestic sewage. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Wang M.,Changzhou University | Chen Y.,Changzhou University | Xia X.,China Environmental Science Research Institute | Li J.,Changzhou University | Liu J.,Changzhou University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

Life cycle analysis method was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem in China. The scope covers three units, including plant cultivation, feedstock transport, and bioethanol conversion. Results show that the net energy ratio was 1.56 and the net energy gain was 8.37. MJ/L. Human toxicity was identified as the most significant negative environmental impact, followed by eutrophication and acidification. Steam generation in the bioethanol conversion unit contributed 82.28% and 48.26% to total human toxicity and acidification potential, respectively. Fertilizers loss from farmland represented 67.23% of total eutrophication potential. The results were significantly affected by the inventory allocation methods, vinasse reusing approaches, and feedstock yields. Reusing vinasse as fuel for steam generation and better cultivation practice to control fertilizer loss could significantly contribute to enhance the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang M.,Changzhou University | Xia X.,China Environmental Science Research Institute | Chai Y.,Changzhou University | Liu J.,Changzhou University
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2010

The calculation and evaluation of energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of the rural household biogas project and its up stream and down stream sectors can provide decision making basis for whole process environmental management of the rural household biogas project and rural renewable energy development. In this paper, life cycle assessment method was established with inventory of a typical 8 m3 rural household biogas project and then the net energy conservation and emission reduction benefits were calculated and evaluated. The results showed that the life cycle reduction potentials of eutrophication, acidification, energy depletion, greenhouse effect, human toxicity and photochemical oxidation impacts of a typical 8 m3 household biogas project accounted for 84.84%, 54.37%, 39.16%, 27.67%, 19.35% and 5.55% of the relevant environmental impact potential per capita in the world in 2000, showing a significant net energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits. Therefore, the development of rural household biogas project plays a significant role in alleviating the fossil energy shortage situation and controlling the agricultural non-point source pollution in rural areas.


Chen Y.,Changzhou University | Liu X.,China Environmental Science Research Institute | Wang M.,Changzhou University | Wang J.,Changzhou University | Yan X.,Changzhou University
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2014

A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the physiological parameters, Cd accumulation and subcellular distribution characteristics in energy crop Ricinus communis (Zibima 3) with different Cd doses in nutrient solution (0, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 μmol·L-1). The results show no significant differences of MDA contents between all Cd treatments. However, chlorophyll contents are sensitive to Cd supply, so it can be used as the Cd tolerance index for Ricinus communis. The Cd contents and uptakes in roots, stems and leaves increase with elevating Cd supply in nutrition solution. The Cd contents in the plant tissues are generally in the sequence root>stem>leaf. The roots demonstrate high accumulation and sequestration capacity of Cd. The Cd subcellular distribution is in the order of soluble fraction>cell wall>organelle in both roots and leaves. In addition, the Cd accumulation percentages in cell wall show increasing trend with elevating Cd supply. Therefore, vacuolar compartmentalization and cell wall binding are supposed to be the main tolerance mechanism to Cd in Ricinus communis. The stem-leaf translocation factors are 0.35~0.62 and the root-stalk transfer coefficients are only 0.02~0.11. Thus, the low translocation ability of cadmium from root to stem may be the limiting factor of accumulation ability in aerial parts of Ricinus communis. Statistical analysis shows significant effects of Cd subcellular distribution on Cd translocation capacity in plants. The root-stem translocation coefficients show negative relationship with the Cd content percentages in the root cell wall and cell organelles, but they are positively related to the Cd content proportions in soluble fractions.


Xia X.,China Environmental Science Research Institute | Wang M.,Changzhou University | Min H.,Changzhou University | Xi B.,China Environmental Science Research Institute
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2012

In demonstration and extension of rural sewage treatment processing facilities, quantified evaluation of the technology solutions can improve the scientific nature of decisions-making. In this paper, a rural sewage treatment technology evaluation index system considering technology effectiveness, economy and efficiency was established, and the indicators included COD Removal Efficiency, NH 4 +-N Removal Efficiency, TP Removal Efficiency, Construction Cost, Operating Cost, Land occupation Area, Economic Benefits, Technology Stability, Management Easiness Degree and Ecological Coordination Degree. The rural sewage treatment technology evaluation method based on fuzzy advantages and disadvantages coefficient was proposed. The method includes initially screening the alternative solutions, evaluating the technology performance and the technology demands degrees from the study area with the indications systems and the fuzzy evaluation method, and building the pros and cons relationship matrix between the alternative solutions and calculating the pros and cons coefficient to obtain the optional solution. A case study was conducted in Youyi Village in Changzhou City, and the evaluation results matched the local conditions. The method considers not only the technical performance of rural sewage treatment technology, but also the applicability of the sewage treatment for rural areas and the matching between the technology performance and the technology demand. The method can serve as the decision analysis tool for sewage treatment technology demonstration and promotion in rural areas.


PubMed | China Environmental Science Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of environmental management | Year: 2010

The study is directed to the use of non-metallic powders obtained from comminuted recycled paper-based printed circuit boards (PCBs) as an additive to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrate. The physical properties of the non-metallic PCB (NMPCB) powders were measured, and the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of the NMPCB/PVC composite material were investigated. The results show that recycled NMPCB powders, when added below a threshold, tended to increase the tensile strength and bending strength of PVC. When 20 wt% NMPCB powders (relative to the substrate PVC) of an average diameter of 0.08 mm were added, the composite tensile strength and bending strength reached 22.6 MPa and 39.83 MPa, respectively, representing 107.2% and 123.1% improvement over pure PVC. The elongation at break of the composite material reached 151.94% of that of pure PVC, while the Vicat softening temperature of the composite material did not increase significantly compared to the pure PVC. The above results suggest that paper-based NMPCB powders, when used at appropriate amounts, can be effective for toughening PVC. Thus, this study suggests a new route for reusing paper-based NMPCB, which may have a significant beneficial environmental impact.

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