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Beijing, China

Huang Y.,Guizhou CDC | Li L.,China CDC | Sun X.,Guizhou CDC | Lu M.,China CDC | And 4 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013

Background: In China, in 2010, a high proportion of pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). However, the preventive actions taken following screening were unclear. We followed up infants who were born to HBsAg positive mothers to describe the management that took place after screening. Methods: We selected eight counties with a probability proportional to population size in the Qiandongnan prefecture, Guizhou province. In each county, we selected a hospital at random. In each hospital, we (a) reviewed records to estimate the proportion of pregnant women who had been screened for HBsAg in 2010 and (b) sampled 10 screened women at random to assess management after one year in 2011. We calculated proportions and confidence intervals (CI) using standard formulae. Results: Among the 7232 women who delivered in 2010 in the 8 hospitals, 98% (95% CI: 97%-99%) had been tested for HBsAg. Among 82 HBsAg women sampled for follow-up, 45 (55%; 95% CI: 44%-65%) knew they had been tested during pregnancy and 60 (73%; 95% CI: 63%-82%) knew they were HBsAg positive. The 82 infants had received three doses of hepatitis B vaccines and 79 (96%; 95% CI: 90%-99%) had received the first dose within 24. h. However, only 11 infants (13%; 95% CI: 9%-25%) had received HBIG in addition to hepatitis B vaccine and 16 (20%; 95% CI: 12%-29%) had been tested for HBsAg upon completion of the vaccine series as part of their routine management. Conclusions: HBsAg testing of pregnant women was common in Qiandongnan, Guizhou, but post-screening management was limited. There is a need to ensure continuity of care through engaging women in HBsAg testing and following up infants with comprehensive management, including immunoprophylaxis and serological testing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hutin Y.,WHO China Country Office | Hennessey K.,WHO Western Pacific Regional Office | Cairns L.,WHO China Country Office | Zhang Y.,Qinghai Province CDC | And 8 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013

Background: Delivery of a timely (within 24. h) hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (TBD) is essential to prevent the long-term complications of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. China made substantial progress in hepatitis B immunization coverage, however, in 2004, TBD coverage was lower in Western, poorer provinces. Methods: We reviewed five demonstration projects for the promotion of TBD in rural counties in Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia. Interventions consisted of (1) work to increase TBD coverage in hospitals, including training of health-care workers, (2) information, education and communication [IEC] with the population and (3) micro-plans to deliver TBD for home births. We evaluated outcome through measuring TBD coverage for home and hospital births. Results: These projects were implemented in the context of national efforts to promote institutional deliveries that lead to increases ranging from 10% to 17% to reach 43-97% proportion of institutional births at the end of the projects. Among institutional births, TBD coverage increased by 2% to 13% to reach post implementation coverage ranging from 98% to 100%. Among home births, TBD coverage increased by 7% to 56% to reach post implementation coverage ranging from 29% to 88%. Overall, TBD coverage increased by 4% to 36% to reach post implementation coverage ranging from 82% to 88%. Conclusions: Demonstration projects based on combined interventions increased TBD coverage. Increases in institutional births amplified the results obtained. Use of standardized indicators for such projects would facilitate evaluation and identify intervention components that are most effective. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lupton J.R.,Texas A&M University | Atkinson S.A.,McMaster University | Chang N.,Ewha Womans University | Fraga C.G.,University of Buenos Aires | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Bioactives can be defined as: "Constituents in foods or dietary supplements, other than those needed to meet basic human nutritional needs, which are responsible for changes in health status" (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of Public Health and Science, Department of Health and Human Services in Fed Reg 69:55821-55822, 2004). Although traditional nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, protein, essential fatty acids and essential amino acids, have dietary reference intake (DRI) values, there is no such evaluative process for bioactives. For certain classes of bioactives, substantial scientific evidence exists to validate a relationship between their intake and enhanced health conditions or reduced risk of disease. In addition, the study of bioactives and their relationship to disease risk is a growing area of research supported by government, academic institutions, and food and supplement manufacturers. Importantly, consumers are purchasing foods containing bioactives, yet there is no evaluative process in place to let the public know how strong the science is behind the benefits or the quantitative amounts needed to achieve these beneficial health effects. This conference, Bioactives: Qualitative Nutrient Reference Values for Life-stage Groups?, explored why it is important to have a DRI-like process for bioactives and challenges for establishing such a process. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

Qiaoli Z.,Dongguan Municipal CDC | Jianfeng H.,Guangdong Provincial CDC | De W.,Guangdong Provincial CDC | Zijun W.,China CDC | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: This study was conducted to identify epidemiological characteristics of the first documented CHIK fever outbreak in China and evaluate the effect of the preventive measures taken. Methodology/Principal Findings: From September 1 to October 29, 2010, China's first documented outbreak of CHIK fever occurred in the Xincun community of Wanjiang District of Dongguan city, Guangdong province; 253 case-patients were recorded, of which 129 were laboratory confirmed, with an attack rate of 1%. Before September 18th the number of CHIK fever cases remained relatively low in the Xincun community; from September 19th onwards, the number of cases increased drastically, with an outbreak peak on October 4th. Cases were distributed across nine small village groups in the Xincun community, with an attack rate of 0-12% at the village level. The household attack rates ranged between 20% and 100%. No significant difference was found in the attack rate between males and females. There was a significant difference in the attack rate in different age groups (chi-square = 18.35, p = 0.005); highest in patients aged 60 years or older and the lowest in patients aged under 10. The major clinical characteristics of patients are fever (100%), joint pain (79%) and rash (54%). Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene on the five earliest confirmed cases showed that the strains of CHIKV isolated from their sera were highly homologous (up to 99%) with isogeneic strains isolated in Thailand in 2009. After control measures were taken, including killing adult mosquitoes and cleaning breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes, the Breteau index and Mosq-ovitrap index decreased rapidly, and the outbreak ended on October 29. Conclusion/Significance: The infection source of the outbreak was imported. Cases showed obvious temporal, spatial, and population aggregation during the outbreak. Comprehensive control measures based on reducing the density of Aedes mosquitoes were effective in controlling the epidemic. © 2012 Qiaoli et al. Source

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