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Du J.,Tsinghua University | Du J.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Ouyang M.,Tsinghua University | Ouyang M.,China Automotive Energy Research Center
2013 World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, EVS 2014 | Year: 2014

Developing electric vehicles (EVs) has been chosen as national strategy as solution to energy security and urban air pollution by China. China has invested much to develop electric vehicle technologies. In past 15 years, the EVs technologies have improved greatly, and in public serving field, the electric vehicle were used in large-scale. The traction battery and electric motor technologies were improved distinguished. By the EVs demonstration programs, the mainstream technology roadmap in line with China's national conditions is becoming gradually clear. In this paper, the progress of China EVs technologies breakthrough and industrialization, pushing policies (government and local government) were summarized. The progress on EVs demonstration program was reviewed and the effectiveness was evaluated. The technology roadmap of traction battery, fuel cell, and electric motor for EVs in past years was concluded. The different technological roadmaps were evaluated by effects in demonstration program. Based on the review of the progress of China EVs R&D and demonstration program, the existing problems and future challenges in EV development were put forth. And the future electric transportation in China was proposed, including electric powertrain technologies roadmap, electric car model strategy, EV industrialization strategy. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Hao H.,Tsinghua University | Hao H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Wang H.,Tsinghua University | Wang H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Yi R.,Tsinghua University
Energy | Year: 2011

As representative for emerging vehicle market, China has one of the fastest growing rates of automobile ownership in the world. The huge and increasing vehicle stock has significantly contributed to the fast growing of China's energy demand and GHG emissions. It is an important issue to project China's vehicle ownership, which to a large extent determines China's oil demand and GHG emissions from road transportation sector in the future. In this study, we established a hybrid model with three sub models to simulate the growth patterns of China's private passenger vehicles, urban public transport vehicles and economic utility vehicles. By using this model, we projected that China's vehicle population would reach 184.8, 363.8 and 606.7 million by 2020, 2030 and 2050 respectively. The fast increase of urban private passenger vehicles is the main driving force for vehicle population growth. Population of urban private passenger vehicles would account for 70.1%, 81.1% and 86.1% of total vehicle population in 2020, 2030 and 2050 respectively. It was demonstrated by sensitivity analysis that vehicle population was quite sensitive to household income and vehicle price, implying an effective lever for regulating the growth of vehicle population. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ou X.,Tsinghua University | Ou X.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Xiaoyu Y.,University of Oxford | Zhang X.,Tsinghua University | Zhang X.,China Automotive Energy Research Center
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

The Well-to-Meter (WTM) analysis module in the Tsinghua-CA3EM model has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption (PFEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for electricity generation and supply in China. The results show that (1) the WTM PFEC and GHG emission intensities for the 2007 Chinese electricity mix are 3.247MJ/MJ and 297.688g carbon dioxide of equivalent (gCO2,e)/MJ, respectively; (2) power generation is the main contributing sub-stage; (3) the coal-power pathway is the only major contributor of PFEC (96.23%) and GHG emissions (97.08%) in the 2007 mix; and (4) GHG emissions intensity in 2020 will be reduced to 220.470gCO2,e/MJ with the development of nuclear and renewable energy and to 169.014gCO2,e/MJ if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is employed. It is concluded that (1) the current high levels of PFEC and GHG emission for electricity in China are largely due to the dominant role of coal in the power-generation sector and the relatively low efficiencies during all the sub-stages from resource extraction to final energy consumption and (2) the development of nuclear and renewable energy as well as low carbon technologies such as CCS can significantly reduce GHG emissions from electricity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Hao H.,Tsinghua University | Hao H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Wang H.,Tsinghua University | Wang H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

We established a bottom-up model to deliver the future trends of fuel consumption and life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by China's on-road trucks. The mitigation measures of mileage utilization rate (MUR) improvement, fuel consumption rate (FCR) improvement, and penetration of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled trucks were evaluated. With no mitigation measures implemented, in the year 2050, the total fuel consumption and life cycle GHG emissions by China's on-road trucks were projected to reach 498 million toe and 2125 million tons, respectively, approximately 5.2 times the level in 2010. If the MUR of trucks in China is increased from the current status as those of the developed countries, a 13% reduction of total fuel consumption can be achieved after 2020. If the FCR of trucks is reduced by 10% in 2011, 2016, 2021, and 2026, a 30% reduction of total fuel consumption can be achieved after 2030. Moreover, if the share of LNG fueled trucks in all newly registered semi-trailer towing trucks and heavy-duty trucks is increased to 20% in 2030, an estimate of 7.9% and 10.9% of the total diesel consumption by trucks will be replaced by LNG in 2030 and 2050, respectively. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Du J.,Tsinghua University | Du J.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Wang H.,Tsinghua University | Wang H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | And 2 more authors.
2013 World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, EVS 2014 | Year: 2014

Developing electric vehicles (EVs) has been chosen as national strategy as solution to energy security and urban air pollution by China. China has invested much to develop electric vehicle technologies. For EVs' penetration, China government develop 'ten-city one thousand-EVs' demonstration program in 25 cities from 2008. For mass penetration of EVs, there still exist many challenges, especially for electric car for private use. How to promote EVs application based on present electric powertrain technologies has become an urgent demand for China government. Targeting to propose a kind of comprehensive trade-off method and to get the optimized powertrain parameters, such as battery capacity, in this paper, the simulation models were setup in Matlab/Simulink. The energy consumption model was setup, and based on that model, electricity consumption efficiency of electric sedan under NEDC and China city passenger car driving cycle were analyzed and compared. Based on energy consumption of a conventional reference car and a BEV, a comprehensive trade-off method for the average car user is proposed targeting to China market. The method takes into account the traction battery technology status and forecasting, vehicle daily kilometers travel, operating duty cycle, purchase price, fixed annual costs and operating costs, policy of EVs, etc. By the analysis, it can be concluded that A-compact type BEV, the AER designed sweet region should be no more than 200km under weight constrain. With higher battery capacities the amortization time becomes significantly longer, but from the systematic view, it is the less economical. Based on above analysis, the most cost-benefit designed AER with 50km VKDT should be 80km from view of minimum TCO of life cycle. So the optimized installed battery capacity threshold based on China VKDT is highly recommended. And the subsidy policy for EV should be modified more reasonable. © 2013 IEEE. Source

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