China Automotive Energy Research Center

Beijing, China

China Automotive Energy Research Center

Beijing, China

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Du J.,Tsinghua University | Du J.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Wang H.,Tsinghua University | Wang H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | And 2 more authors.
2013 World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, EVS 2014 | Year: 2014

Developing electric vehicles (EVs) has been chosen as national strategy as solution to energy security and urban air pollution by China. China has invested much to develop electric vehicle technologies. For EVs' penetration, China government develop 'ten-city one thousand-EVs' demonstration program in 25 cities from 2008. For mass penetration of EVs, there still exist many challenges, especially for electric car for private use. How to promote EVs application based on present electric powertrain technologies has become an urgent demand for China government. Targeting to propose a kind of comprehensive trade-off method and to get the optimized powertrain parameters, such as battery capacity, in this paper, the simulation models were setup in Matlab/Simulink. The energy consumption model was setup, and based on that model, electricity consumption efficiency of electric sedan under NEDC and China city passenger car driving cycle were analyzed and compared. Based on energy consumption of a conventional reference car and a BEV, a comprehensive trade-off method for the average car user is proposed targeting to China market. The method takes into account the traction battery technology status and forecasting, vehicle daily kilometers travel, operating duty cycle, purchase price, fixed annual costs and operating costs, policy of EVs, etc. By the analysis, it can be concluded that A-compact type BEV, the AER designed sweet region should be no more than 200km under weight constrain. With higher battery capacities the amortization time becomes significantly longer, but from the systematic view, it is the less economical. Based on above analysis, the most cost-benefit designed AER with 50km VKDT should be 80km from view of minimum TCO of life cycle. So the optimized installed battery capacity threshold based on China VKDT is highly recommended. And the subsidy policy for EV should be modified more reasonable. © 2013 IEEE.


Du J.,Tsinghua University | Du J.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Ouyang M.,Tsinghua University | Ouyang M.,China Automotive Energy Research Center
2013 World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, EVS 2014 | Year: 2014

Developing electric vehicles (EVs) has been chosen as national strategy as solution to energy security and urban air pollution by China. China has invested much to develop electric vehicle technologies. In past 15 years, the EVs technologies have improved greatly, and in public serving field, the electric vehicle were used in large-scale. The traction battery and electric motor technologies were improved distinguished. By the EVs demonstration programs, the mainstream technology roadmap in line with China's national conditions is becoming gradually clear. In this paper, the progress of China EVs technologies breakthrough and industrialization, pushing policies (government and local government) were summarized. The progress on EVs demonstration program was reviewed and the effectiveness was evaluated. The technology roadmap of traction battery, fuel cell, and electric motor for EVs in past years was concluded. The different technological roadmaps were evaluated by effects in demonstration program. Based on the review of the progress of China EVs R&D and demonstration program, the existing problems and future challenges in EV development were put forth. And the future electric transportation in China was proposed, including electric powertrain technologies roadmap, electric car model strategy, EV industrialization strategy. © 2013 IEEE.


Hao H.,Tsinghua University | Hao H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Wang H.,Tsinghua University | Wang H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

We established a bottom-up model to deliver the future trends of fuel consumption and life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by China's on-road trucks. The mitigation measures of mileage utilization rate (MUR) improvement, fuel consumption rate (FCR) improvement, and penetration of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled trucks were evaluated. With no mitigation measures implemented, in the year 2050, the total fuel consumption and life cycle GHG emissions by China's on-road trucks were projected to reach 498 million toe and 2125 million tons, respectively, approximately 5.2 times the level in 2010. If the MUR of trucks in China is increased from the current status as those of the developed countries, a 13% reduction of total fuel consumption can be achieved after 2020. If the FCR of trucks is reduced by 10% in 2011, 2016, 2021, and 2026, a 30% reduction of total fuel consumption can be achieved after 2030. Moreover, if the share of LNG fueled trucks in all newly registered semi-trailer towing trucks and heavy-duty trucks is increased to 20% in 2030, an estimate of 7.9% and 10.9% of the total diesel consumption by trucks will be replaced by LNG in 2030 and 2050, respectively. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hao H.,Tsinghua University | Hao H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Wang H.,Tsinghua University | Wang H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Energy | Year: 2011

Passenger vehicles are the main consumers of gasoline in China. We established a bottom-up model which focuses on the simulation of energy consumptions and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions growth by China's passenger vehicle fleet. The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation effects of five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, strengthening fuel consumption rate (FCR) limits, vehicle downsizing and promoting electric vehicle (EV) penetration were evaluated. Based on the combination of these measures, the fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China's passenger vehicle fleet were analyzed. Under reference scenario with no measures implemented, the fuel consumptions and life cycle GHG emissions will reach 520 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and 2.15 billion tons in 2050, about 8.1 times the level in 2010. However, substantial fuel conservation can be achieved by implementing the measures. By implementing all five measures together, the fuel consumption will reach 138 Mtoe in 2030 and decrease to 126 Mtoe in 2050, which is only 37.1% and 24.3% of the consumption under reference scenario. Similar potential lies in GHG mitigation. The results and scenarios provided references for the Chinese government's policy-making. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Hao H.,Tsinghua University | Hao H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Wang H.,Tsinghua University | Wang H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

The fast growth of vehicle population in China has caused problems such as traffic congestion and excessive fuel consumption. There have been demands for policy control on growth in private vehicle travel demand. Beijing and Shanghai are China's first two cities to implement policies on vehicle ownership and use. In this paper, we compared policies in the two cities and estimated their impacts on fuel consumption by passenger vehicles. The limitation of vehicle use in Beijing provides limited but immediate reduction in fuel consumption. The limitation of vehicle ownership in Shanghai provides large potential of fuel conservation in a longer term. Under current policy, fuel consumptions by passenger vehicles in Beijing and Shanghai in 2020 were estimated to reach 7.5 and 3.9 billion liters, respectively. The experiences of Beijing and Shanghai are highly relevant for cities in China and abroad that are facing the same problems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Hao H.,Tsinghua University | Hao H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Wang H.,Tsinghua University | Wang H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Yi R.,Tsinghua University
Energy | Year: 2011

As representative for emerging vehicle market, China has one of the fastest growing rates of automobile ownership in the world. The huge and increasing vehicle stock has significantly contributed to the fast growing of China's energy demand and GHG emissions. It is an important issue to project China's vehicle ownership, which to a large extent determines China's oil demand and GHG emissions from road transportation sector in the future. In this study, we established a hybrid model with three sub models to simulate the growth patterns of China's private passenger vehicles, urban public transport vehicles and economic utility vehicles. By using this model, we projected that China's vehicle population would reach 184.8, 363.8 and 606.7 million by 2020, 2030 and 2050 respectively. The fast increase of urban private passenger vehicles is the main driving force for vehicle population growth. Population of urban private passenger vehicles would account for 70.1%, 81.1% and 86.1% of total vehicle population in 2020, 2030 and 2050 respectively. It was demonstrated by sensitivity analysis that vehicle population was quite sensitive to household income and vehicle price, implying an effective lever for regulating the growth of vehicle population. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Du J.,Tsinghua University | Du J.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Ouyang M.,Tsinghua University | Ouyang M.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | And 2 more authors.
2012 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, VPPC 2012 | Year: 2012

Developing electric vehicle can reduce crude oil consumption and carbon emission sharply to resolve the problems of energy crisis and climate change of China. EVs require large batteries for energy storage, which affect electric vehicle cost, weight, and performance. More all electric range (AER) means more dispalcement of the fosill fuel, but lead to too expensive to afford for China's consumers. The electric vehicle design method to tadeoff between performance and cost is very valuable.This paper discussed the parameter optimization design method targeting cost-benefit objective. It analyses the impact of maximum speed, AER on energy efficiency and market competitiveness, based the survey data annalysis of vehicle kilometers daily traveled(VKDT), duty cycle analysis, etc.The mathematic model was proposed to account for the effects of additional batteries on fuel consumption, cost, etc. It can be find that when charged daily, AER of 50km or less, in China, using average small-capacity EVs is less expensive and releases fewer GHGs than conventional vehicles (CVs). By cost-benefit analysis, it can be concluded that for the first generation pure electric vehicle, the micro-size electric suitable for the first phase of development. © 2012 IEEE.


Ou X.,Tsinghua University | Ou X.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Xiaoyu Y.,University of Oxford | Zhang X.,Tsinghua University | Zhang X.,China Automotive Energy Research Center
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

The Well-to-Meter (WTM) analysis module in the Tsinghua-CA3EM model has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption (PFEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for electricity generation and supply in China. The results show that (1) the WTM PFEC and GHG emission intensities for the 2007 Chinese electricity mix are 3.247MJ/MJ and 297.688g carbon dioxide of equivalent (gCO2,e)/MJ, respectively; (2) power generation is the main contributing sub-stage; (3) the coal-power pathway is the only major contributor of PFEC (96.23%) and GHG emissions (97.08%) in the 2007 mix; and (4) GHG emissions intensity in 2020 will be reduced to 220.470gCO2,e/MJ with the development of nuclear and renewable energy and to 169.014gCO2,e/MJ if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is employed. It is concluded that (1) the current high levels of PFEC and GHG emission for electricity in China are largely due to the dominant role of coal in the power-generation sector and the relatively low efficiencies during all the sub-stages from resource extraction to final energy consumption and (2) the development of nuclear and renewable energy as well as low carbon technologies such as CCS can significantly reduce GHG emissions from electricity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Hao H.,Tsinghua University | Hao H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Wang H.,Tsinghua University | Wang H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2010

Gas-to-liquids (GTL) as an alternative to diesel is considered to be one of the technical options to reduce petroleum consumption in the on-road transportation sector. Between May and August 2007, a joint demonstration program by Tsinghua University, Beijing Transit, Cummins Corporation and Shell Corporation was carried out in Beijing. The program focused on the supply systems and vehicle use of GTL fuel. The demonstration fleet was formed by four transit buses fueled with GTL and four with diesel. It was demonstrated that GTL has good compatibility with diesel in terms of fuel supply system and vehicle use. This paper compares the energy consumption and GHG emissions of diesel and GTL fuel supply chains by life cycle analysis based on demonstration results. The results indicate GTL's large range (reported 54-70%) in synthesis efficiency, as the key factor in determining energy consumption and GHG emissions within the GTL fuel supply chain. For the probable case (GTL synthesis efficiency: 65%), the life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of GTL fuel are 42.5% and 12.6% higher than that of diesel. For two sensitivity analysis cases (GTL synthesis efficiency: 54% and70%), energy consumptions are 74.2% and 31.2% higher and GHG emissions are 27.3% and 7.4% higher than that of the diesel fuel supply chain. If the efficiency of the GTL synthesis process is improved to 75%, then the GHG emissions level of the GTL fuel supply chain can be reduced to the same level as the diesel fuel supply chain. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Du J.,Tsinghua University | Du J.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | Wang H.,Tsinghua University | Wang H.,China Automotive Energy Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2012

Targeting to further improve the fuel economy of the city bus with power-split hydraulic hybrid powertrain operating under urban cycle, and take advantage the high power density of hydraulic hybrid fully, a kind of improved rule-based control strategy was proposed. Mathematic model was setup in Matlab/Simulink to investigate adaptive ability, effectiveness of rule-based control strategy was applied on the city bus with designed hybrid powertrain. The simulation results showed: with proposed hybrid powertrain, adopting power management of rule-based method, 23.4% improvement on fuel economy can be achieved.

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