China Agricultural University is a university in Beijing, People's Republic of China specializing in agriculture, biology, engineering, veterinary medicine, economics, management, humanities and social science. It was formed in 1905 through the merger of the Beijing Agricultural University and the Beijing Agricultural Engineering University. At present there are around 12,500 undergraduate and 7,000 graduate students studying in the university. The new gymnasium, hosted the wrestling events during the 2008 Summer Olympics. Wikipedia.
Gao H.,China Agricultural University |
Shreeve J.M.,University of Idaho
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011
An energetic material is a compound or a mixture of compounds that, when subjected controllably to friction, impact, spark, or shock, undergoes rapid, heat-producing decomposition. Modification of azoles with either a mono- or multifunctional energy group builds molecules which may be transformed into salts through neutralization or quaterization reactions combined with subsequent metathesis. The enthalpies of formation of azoles are dependent on their ring structures. They can be adjusted by substitution of the hydrogen atoms with various energetic functional groups. Tetrazoles are an important core of energetic materials because of the practical and theoretical significance of these unique compounds and the diversity of their properties. Most tetrazolate salts are highly endothermic compounds. The reaction of 5-Nitroimino-tetrazoles which are five-membered aromatic heterocycles with a nitroimine functional group, with heterocyclic bases yield 5-nitroimino-1H-tetrazolate monohydrate salts.
Zhao G.,China Agricultural University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2010
Background: Plant and animal ferritins stem from a common ancestor, but plant ferritins exhibit various features that are different from those of animal ferritins. Phytoferritin is observed in plastids (e.g., chloroplasts in leaves, amyloplasts in tubers and seeds), whereas animal ferritin is largely found in the cytoplasm. The main difference in structure between plant and animal ferritins is the two specific domains (TP and EP) at the N-terminal sequence of phytoferritin, which endow phytoferritin with specific iron chemistry. As a member of the nonheme iron group of dietary iron sources, phytoferritin consists of 24 subunits that assemble into a spherical shell storing up to ~2000 Fe3+ in the form of an iron oxyhydroxide-phosphate mineral. This feature is distinct from small molecule nonheme iron existing in cereals, which has poor bioavailability. Scope of review: This review focuses on the relationship between structure and function of phytoferritin and the recent progress in the use of phytoferritin as iron supplement. Major conclusions: Phytoferritin, especially from legume seeds, represents a novel alternative dietary iron source. General significance: An understanding of the chemistry and biology of phytoferritin, its interaction with iron, and its stability against gastric digestion is beneficial to design diets that will be used for treatment of global iron deficiency. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Wang Y.,China Agricultural University |
Wu W.-H.,China Agricultural University
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2013
As one of the most important mineral nutrient elements, potassium (K +) participates in many plant physiological processes and determines the yield and quality of crop production. In this review, we summarize K + signaling processes and K+ transport regulation in higher plants, especially in plant responses to K+-deficiency stress. Plants perceive external K+ fluctuations and generate the initial K+ signal in root cells. This signal is transduced into the cytoplasm and encoded as Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species signaling. K +-deficiency-induced signals are subsequently decoded by cytoplasmic sensors, which regulate the downstream transcriptional and posttranslational responses. Eventually, plants produce a series of adaptive events in both physiological and morphological alterations that help them survive K+ deficiency. © Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Yi X.,China Agricultural University
Nucleic acids research | Year: 2013
Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) is a powerful method for interpreting biological meaning of a list of genes by computing the overlaps with various previously defined gene sets. As one of the most widely used annotations for defining gene sets, Gene Ontology (GO) system has been used in many enrichment analysis tools. EasyGO and agriGO, two GO enrichment analysis toolkits developed by our laboratory, have gained extensive usage and citations since their releases because of their effective performance and consistent maintenance. Responding to the increasing demands of more comprehensive analysis from the users, we developed a web server as an important component of our bioinformatics analysis toolkit, named PlantGSEA, which is based on GSEA method and mainly focuses on plant organisms. In PlantGSEA, 20 290 defined gene sets deriving from different resources were collected and used for GSEA analysis. The PlantGSEA currently supports gene locus IDs and Affymatrix microarray probe set IDs from four plant model species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Zea mays and Gossypium raimondii). The PlantGSEA is an efficient and user-friendly web server, and now it is publicly accessible at http://structuralbiology.cau.edu.cn/PlantGSEA.
Sun Y.,China Agricultural University
Developmental and comparative immunology | Year: 2013
In the past several decades, immunoglobulin (Ig) genes have been extensively characterized in many tetrapod species. This review focuses on the expressed Ig isotypes and the diversity of Ig genes in mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. With regard to heavy chains, five Ig isotypes - IgM, IgD, IgG, IgA, and IgE - have been reported in mammals. Among these isotypes, IgM, IgD, and IgA (or its analog, IgX) are also found in non-mammalian tetrapods. Birds, reptiles, and amphibians express IgY, which is considered the precursor of IgG and IgE. Some species have developed unique isotypes of Ig, such as IgO in the platypus, IgF in Xenopus, and IgY (ΔFc) in ducks and turtles. The κ and λ light chains are both utilized in tetrapods, but the usage frequencies of κ and λ chains differ greatly among species. The diversity of Ig genes depends on several factors, including the germline repertoire and recombinatorial and post-recombinatorial diversity, and different species have evolved distinct mechanisms to generate antibody diversity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.