China Agricultural Machinery Testing Center

Beijing, China

China Agricultural Machinery Testing Center

Beijing, China
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Li G.,Beijing Technology and Business University | Ji F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xiang S.,China Agricultural Machinery Testing Center | Zhou Y.G.,China Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering | Year: 2017

Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was adopted to determine the changes in component of BG11-cultivated Desmodesmus sp. (BG11/8-10) pyrolyzed products at different temperatures (300°C-800°C). The results of analysis on a series of total ions chromatogram (TIC) showed that pyrolyzed products of BG11/8-10 at different temperature mainly included aliphatic hydrocarbons, nitrogen compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, ketones, alcohols, aldehydes and furan compounds. Compared to the bio-oil (42.36%) generated by pyrolysis at 700°C, the relative content of bio-oil generated at 800°C was the highest up to 56.96%. However, higher temperature could easily cause the generation of large quantities of such pollutants as nitrogen compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Therefore, based on lower pollutant discharge and higher bio-oil yield, the optimal pyrolysis temperature of BG11/8-10 was around 700°C. © 2017, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All rights reserved.


Li G.,Beijing Technology and Business University | Xiang S.N.,China Agricultural Machinery Testing Center | Ji F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhou Y.G.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering | Year: 2017

Qualitative and quantitative analyses of thermal cracking products from Desmodesmus sp. were performed based on pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) at different temperature regimes (350°C-750°C). After further analysis of a series of total ions chromatogram (TIC) and summarized, thermal cracking products of Desmodesmus sp. at different temperature regimes can be obtained, which mainly comprised of aliphatic hydrocarbons, nitrogen compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, ketones, alcohols, aldehydes and furan compounds. Compared to bio-oil production at 650°C (32.07%), Desmodesmus sp. pyrolyzed at 750°C could produce the highest bio-oil content of 42.25%. However, higher temperature could lead to the formation of contaminants (nitrogen compounds and PAHs) more easily. Therefore, considering the higher content of bio-oil conversion and less pollutants generation, the optimum temperature for Desmodesmus sp. thermal cracking conversion was about 650°C. © 2017, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All rights reserved.


Li X.,China Agricultural University | Gao Z.,China Agricultural University | Jin H.,China Agricultural Machinery Testing Center | Xiao H.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2017

The same type of milking machine has the different system vacuum degree, and its set value is mainly from experience and lacks a specific scientific basis. However, during milk processing, farms keep the factory setting value of system vacuum degree for all dairy cows, which causes obvious health problems of dairy cows. Therefore, it is imperative to provide the scientific setting basis of system vacuum degree by quantifying the effect of milking machine system vacuum degree on milking characteristics and cows' health. The dry test and wet test were carried out at China Agricultural Machinery Testing Centre. Simulation milking device was applied to simulate peak milking process with the milk flow of 4.0 kg/min for the high yield dairy cow and 2.5 kg/min for the low yield dairy cow. The pulsation rate and pulsation ratio were set to 60 cycles/min and 60%, respectively, which remained unchanged throughout the experiment. System vacuum degree was set at 44, 46 and 48 kPa, respectively, by means of the vacuum regulator. VaDia vacuum tester was used for data acquisition when milking machine ran under no-load or simulated the milking process at each system vacuum degree. The milking time test was carried out at a dairy cattle field in the north of Jinan, Shandong Province. The setting program of pulsation rate and pulsation ratio was the same in dry test and wet test. Twelve high yielding Chinese Holstein cows were randomly selected. In continuous 3 months (from July to September), milking machine system vacuum degree was set at 44, 46 and 48 kPa respectively. Milking was performed at 5:00 and 17:00 every day, and milk yield, somatic cell count (SCC), milking time (only in morning milking) and teat end wall thickness before and after milking (only in morning milking) were measured. All parameters measured were compared with ANOVA (analysis of variance) using SPSS. The comparisons of multiple means were made using the Duncan's multiple range test, in order to classify the effect of the different treatments. The logarithm of SCC was used to normalize the distribution of SCC. The results showed that during peak milk flow period and over milking period, system vacuum degree was increased from 44 to 48 kPa, and the increasing rate of liner vacuum degree was 4.9% (P<0.001) and 10.8% (P<0.001), respectively. Meanwhile, the increasing rate of milking cup mouth vacuum degree was 373.8% (P<0.001) and 53.7% (P<0.001), respectively. There were no significant differences for milk yield, average milk flow rate and milking time except the logarithm of SCC (P<0.05) between 44 and 48 kPa system vacuum degree. Percentage change of the teat end wall thickness was lower at the lower system vacuum level (44 kPa) after milking, and increased (P<0.05) as the system vacuum level was raised to 48 kPa. The findings of this study indicated that with a lower vacuum level of 44 kPa, the cows were milked better than those with 46 or 48 kPa. The findings in current work provide a technical support for the optimization settings of working state parameters of milking machine in mechanization milking parlors in China. © 2017, Editorial Department of the Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.


Huang C.,China Agricultural University | Huang C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Han L.,China Agricultural University | Liu X.,China Agricultural University | Ma L.,China Agricultural Machinery Testing Center
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects | Year: 2011

Rice straw can be used for biochemical conversion for energy production. The use of near infrared spectroscopy was explored to estimate the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in this study. A total of 172 samples from 17 provinces of China were collected and scanned using NIRSystem 6500 spectrophotometer. Different spectra pretreatments and regression methods were adopted to optimize the models. When evaluated on independent validations, the standard errors of validation and determination coefficient of validation were 1.49%, 1.59%, 0.65% and 0.82, 0.71, 0.78, respectively. It was concluded that near infrared spectroscopy can be used to roughly analyze the contents of cellulose and lignin, and can only distinguish high contents and low contents of hemicellulose in rice straw. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Chai L.,China Agricultural University | Ma C.,China Agricultural University | Zhang Y.,China Agricultural University | Wang M.,China Agricultural Machinery Testing Center | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2010

In order to study the feasibility of the application of ground source heat pump (GSHP) in greenhouses, experimental research on groundwater-style ground source heat pump system was carried out in greenhouse heating in Beijing. Experimental result showed that the coefficient of the system performance in greenhouse heating had reached 3.83 during the heating period of Oct.15, 2007-Mar.10, 2008, about 42% energy had been saved compare with conventional coal-fired hot water heating system, which its merits of energy-saving and greenhouse gases mitigating of the system were distinctive. The total electric consumption and the heating cost of the system was 0.15 kW·h/(m2·d) and 0.12 Yuan/(m2·d), respectively. The comparison among the heating systems of GSHP, natural gas, coal and light diesel oil were made, which the relative heating cost were 1.20, 1.31, 1.00 and 3.36, respectively, and the heating cost of ground source heat pump was higher than that of coal slightly, but was lower than that of natural gas and light diesel oil apparently.


Ni J.,China Agricultural University | He J.,China Agricultural University | Li H.,China Agricultural University | Wang S.,China Agricultural Machinery Testing Center | And 3 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2012

The runoff study by using of simulated rainfall can significantly shorten the experiment period, and speed up the research process for the principles of rainwater infiltration and soil erosion. Currently, most rainfall simulators, which are bulky, complicated, expensive, and difficult to be adopted widely. A portable rainfall simulator consisted of the sprinkling system and the water supply system was designed to sovle above mentioned problems. This simulator employs a structure with single downward-oriented nozzles to realize a rainfall simulation, and it can artificially simulate different rainfall intensities as well as different rainfall durations by controlling the pressure of supplied water, and by changing the nozzle type. According to the rainfall properties test, this simulator realized simulated rainfall intensity ranging from 0 to 140 mm/h and rainfall uniformity over 80%. The raindrop diameter mainly distributed within the range 0.1-5.5 mm, and the raindrop speed at reaching ground ranging from 2 to 2.9 m/s was realized for different raindrop diameters. The test results were very similar with natural rainfall.The simulator can therefore effectively realize rainfall simulation.


Wang X.,China Agricultural Machinery Testing Center | Wang S.,China Agricultural Machinery Testing Center
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2010

At present, the standard system of agricultural mechanization in China faces some problems such as loose-standard, inadequate integrity, unbalanced development and so on. Based on the investigation and analysis of the existing agricultural mechanization standard system, this paper mainly considered the necessity of the agricultural mechanization standard system development. The 3-D framework consisting of field, product, type of standard of agricultural mechanization was designed by using analytic hierarchy process and 3-D structural method.


Mengtao Y.,Chongqing University of Science and Technology | Hongwei J.,China Agricultural Machinery Testing Center | Xiaomei W.,Chongqing University of Science and Technology | Yonggang Y.,Chongqing University of Science and Technology
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2012

Based on the development practice of the pump performance test bed for the agricultural sprayer, a new program is proposed to cover the integrated mechanical structure of the pump performance test bed. Analysis was given to the various performance parameters of the pump test with regard to their testing methods, and specific methods of work performance test and inhalation performance test were also discussed to explore the test results. Finally, the issues that need to be focused were raised on the design and manufacture of pump performance test for the sprayer. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Chen M.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Shi Y.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Qu G.,China Agricultural Machinery Testing Center
World Automation Congress Proceedings | Year: 2012

According to climatic and abundant solar radiation characteristics of Qingdao, the courtyard sunspace passive solar house was built. The sunspace temperature distribution and indoor ventilation quantity mathematical model was established based on its heat transfer theory. The courtyard sunspace temperature and auxiliary ventilation quantity were simulated, the simulated results were the same basically with experiment results, it showed that sunspace auxiliary ventilation mathematical model was correct, and the maximum ventilation quantity reached 160m3/h using courtyard sunspace auxiliary ventilation, which meet the demand of rural residential ventilation quantity. © 2012 TSI Press.


Chen M.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Shi Y.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Qu G.,China Agricultural Machinery Testing Center
World Automation Congress Proceedings | Year: 2012

According to rural building structure form of Qingdao, the courtyard sunspace passive solar house was built. A heat transfer mathematics model was established for courtyard sunspace passive solar house based on its working principle, and indoor temperature of courtyard sunspace passive solar house was simulated calculation, the indoor temperature of simulation result and experiment result were the same basically, it showed that mathematics model was correct and could provide theoretical basis to transform the courtyard sunspace in this area. © 2012 TSI Press.

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