China Academy of Urban Planning and Design

Beijing, China

China Academy of Urban Planning and Design

Beijing, China
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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2009. | Award Amount: 5.14M | Year: 2010

Collaborative research on flood resilience in urban areas (CORFU) is an interdisciplinary international project that will look at advanced and novel strategies and provide adequate measures for improved flood management in cities. The differences in urban flooding problems in Asia and in Europe range from levels of economic development, infrastructure age, social systems and decision making processes, to prevailing drainage methods, seasonality of rainfall patterns and climate change trends. Our vision is that this project will use these differences to create synergies that will bring new quality to flood management strategies globally. Through a 4-year collaborative research programme, the latest technological advances will be cross-fertilised with traditional and emerging approaches to living with floods. The overall aim of CORFU is to enable European and Asian institutions to learn from each other through joint investigation, development, implementation and dissemination of strategies that will enable more scientifically sound management of the consequences of urban flooding in the future. Flood impacts in urban areas potential deaths, damage to infrastructure and health problems and consequent effects on individuals and on communities and possible responses will be assessed by envisaging different scenarios of relevant drivers: urban development, socio-economic trends and climate changes. The cost-effectiveness of resilience measures and integrative and adaptable flood management plans for these scenarios will be quantified. CORFU is structured in six Work Packages. WP1 will look at drivers that impact on urban flooding. WP2 will enhance methodologies and tools for flood hazard assessment based on urban flood modelling. WP3 will improve, extend and integrate modern methods for flood impact assessment. WP4 will aim to assess and enhance existing flood risk management strategies. WP5 will disseminate the outputs. WP6 will co-ordinate the project.

Long Y.,Tsinghua University | Liu L.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

Extensive evidence has revealed that street greenery, as a quality-of-life component, is important for oxygen production, pollutant absorption, and urban heat island effect mitigation. Determining how green our streets are has always been difficult given the time and money consumed using conventional methods. This study proposes an automatic method using an emerging online street-view service to address this issue. This method was used to analyze street greenery in the central areas (28.3 km2 each) of 245 major Chinese cities; this differs from previous studies, which have investigated small areas in a given city. Such a city-system-level study enabled us to detect potential universal laws governing street greenery as well as the impact factors. We collected over one million Tencent Street View pictures and calculated the green view index for each picture. We found the following rules: (1) longer streets in more economically developed and highly administrated cities tended to be greener; (2) cities in western China tend to have greener streets; and (3) the aggregated green view indices at the municipal level match with the approved National Garden Cities of China. These findings can prove useful for drafting more appropriate policies regarding planning and engineering practices for street greenery. © 2017 Long, Liu. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Zhou S.,Tongji University | Shao Y.,Tongji University | Shao Y.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design | Gao N.,Tongji University | And 4 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2014

Algal organic matters (AOM), including extracellular organic matters (EOM) and intracellular organic matters (IOM), were comprehensively studied in terms of their biodegradability, disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potentials and membrane fouling. EOM and IOM were fractionated into hydrophobic (HP), transphilic (TP) and hydrophilic (HL) constituents. The HP, TP and HL fractions of EOM and IOM were highly biodegradable with BDOC/DOC ranging from 52.5% to 67.4% and the DBP formation potentials followed the order of HP > TP > HL, except of IOM-HL. Biodegradable process proved very effective in removing the DBP formation potentials. Moreover, the AOM characteristics were also evaluated during ultrafiltration (UF) treatment. Results demonstrated that UF favourably remove DOC and DBP formation potential of IOM than those of EOM. And the HL constituents played a more important role in membrane fouling than HP and TP. The UF foulants exhibited higher BDOC/DOC than AOM, suggesting EOM and IOM might enhance biofouling because more biodegradable proteins and polysaccharides were found in membrane foulants. Therefore, appropriate biological treatment, ultrafiltration, or combination of the both are potential options to address these algae-caused water quality issues. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Li D.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design | Yang M.,Nanjing Southeast University
Wuhan Ligong Daxue Xuebao (Jiaotong Kexue Yu Gongcheng Ban)/Journal of Wuhan University of Technology (Transportation Science and Engineering) | Year: 2014

Taking a nuclear household as a unit, structural equation model is developed based on the data from the activity-travel survey conducted in 2009 in Suzhou. Exogenous variables are household socio-demographics, and endogenous variables consist of household activity duration and trip-chaining travel time. The results indicate that household socio-demographics have remarkable influences on household activity duration and travel time. Additionally, there are interactions among different kind of household activity durations and trip chains travel time. Further, socio-demographics have indirect effects on household travel time through activity duration.

Liang S.,Tsinghua University | Zhang T.,Tsinghua University | Xu Y.,Tsinghua University | Xu Y.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design
Waste Management | Year: 2012

Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Deng J.,Tongji University | Shao Y.,Tongji University | Shao Y.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design | Gao N.,Tongji University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

A magnetic nanoscaled catalyst cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) was successfully prepared and used for the activation of oxone to generate sulfate radicals for the degradation of diclofenac. The catalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The effects of calcination temperature, initial pH, catalyst and oxone dosage on the degradation efficiency were investigated. Results demonstrated that CoFe2O4-300 exhibited the best catalytic performance and almost complete removal of diclofenac was obtained in 15min. The degradation efficiency increased with initial pH decreasing in the pH range of 5-9. The increase of catalyst and oxone dosage both had the positive effect on the degradation of diclofenac. Moreover, CoFe2O4 could retain high degradation efficiency even after being reused for five cycles. Finally, the major diclofenac degradation intermediates were identified and the primary degradation pathways were proposed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang Y.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design
Civil Engineering and Urban Planning III - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Civil Engineering and Urban Planning, CEUP 2014 | Year: 2014

In order to address the double challenges of urbanization and the increasing use of private motorized transportation, Car Free Day activity has now been in operation in Chinese cities for seven years since 2007, accompanied by the popularization of Green Transportation concept and the formulation of sustainable transportation development policies and measures. This study first provides a concise review of the development process of Car Free Day movement and its core content, followed by the quantitative assessment, which is the focus of this study, of Car Free Day movement. The assessment includes the cities participating in the program, vehicle free areas, the long-term measures adopted, public opinion polls, and the monitoring of traffic environmental standards. The author believes that Car Free Day movement promotes the growth of public transportation passenger flow and raises the service quality of public transportation, improves the efficiency of traffic circulation, benefits the environment, and helps with the promotion of the sustainable development and transformation of urban transportation policies. Finally, the following recommendations are made: continuous expansion of Car Free Day movement participation scale and depth, reasonable designation of car-free zones, strengthening of information provision for car users, and long-term promotion of formulation of long-term sustainable measures by cities. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group.

Li A.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Li A.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design | Zhao X.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Mao R.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2014

In this study, the disinfection byproduct formation potential (DBPFP) of three surface waters with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of 2.5, 5.2, and 7.9. mg/L was investigated. The formation and distribution of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were evaluated. Samples collected from three surface waters in China were fractionated based on molecular weight and hydrophobicity. The raw water containing more hydrophobic (Ho) fraction exhibited higher formation potentials of haloacetic acid and trihalomethane. The DBPFP of the surface waters did not correlate with the DOC value. The values of DBPFP per DOC were correlated with the specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) for Ho and Hi fractions. The obtained results suggested that SUVA cannot reveal the ability of reactive sites to form disinfection byproducts for waters with few aromatic structures. Combined with the analysis of FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the raw waters and the corresponding fractions, it was concluded that the Ho fraction with phenolic hydroxyl and conjugated double bonds was responsible for the production of trichloromethanes and trichloroacetic acids. The Hi fraction with amino and carboxyl groups had the potential to form dichloroacetic acids and chlorinated trihalomethanes. © 2014.

Zhao X.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Li A.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Li A.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design | Mao R.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2014

The reductive removal of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in a three-dimensional electrochemical continuous reactor with Pd-granular activated carbon (Pd-GAC) particles as fixed filler and Pd-modified carbon paper (Pd-C) as cathode was studied in this research. Pd-C electrode was prepared from PdCl2 via electrodeposition onto carbon paper. Pd-GAC particles were prepared by the impregnation of Pd2+ ions onto GAC. Efficient electrocatalytic reduction of HAAs in this reactor was exhibited. Effects of current density, initial HHAs concentration, and hydraulic retention time on the HHAs removal were investigated. Under the current density of 0.3mA/cm2, HAAs with initial concentration of 120μg/L were reduced to be less than 60μg/L with hydraulic retention time of 20min. Electron transfer and HAAs diffusion both played an important role in controlling the electro-reduction process under the conditions of current density less than 0.6mA/cm2 with an initial HAAs concentration ranging from 120 to 600μg/L. However, the HAAs diffusion became the primary rate-limiting step when the current density was higher than 0.6mA/cm2. The Pd0 and Pd2+ species were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The stability of the electrochemical reactor in the reduction removal of HAAs was also exhibited. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Li Z.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Li Z.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design | Hobson P.,Biology Research Group | An W.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) related odor events caused by cyanobacteria have been a very common problem to water supply. This paper investigated the effects of temperature (18 and 25 °C) and light intensity (10 and 100 μmol photons m-2 s-1) on the production behaviors of earthy odor compounds by three odorous cyanobacteria, i.e., the geosmin-producing planktonic Anabaena circinalis (Ana 318), geosmin-producing benthic Phormidium amoenum (Pho 012) and MIB-producing benthic Phormidium sp. (Pho 689). At the same time, the effects of biodegradation and volatilization on the fates of the released odor compounds in water were also evaluated. The combination of high temperature (25 °C) and light intensity (100 μmol photons m-2 s-1) favored the growth of the three cyanobacteria and the production of chl-a and odor compounds. However, higher chl-a and odor yields (average odor compounds per cell) were achieved for the two benthic cyanobacteria at the temperature of 18 °C. Most of geosmin was included within the cells for Ana 318 (95-99%) and Pho 012 (85-60%), while only 20-40% MIB was bound to the cells for Pho 689. The half-life times of MIB and geosmin due to volatilization varied between 18.8 and 35.4 days, while 8 out of 10 samples exhibited a half-life time (t1/2) for geosmin biodegradation shorter than 1 day (0.38-15.0 h), showing that biodegradation could affect the fate of geosmin significantly in aquatic environments. In comparison, biodegradation of MIB was much slower (t1/2: 122-2166 h). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that Pseudomonas- and Sphingomonas-like bacteria coexisted with cyanobacteria in the cultures, and may have played an important role in geosmin/MIB biodegradation. The result of this study will be helpful for better understanding and managing the earthy odor problems caused by cyanobacteria in water supply. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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