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Zhou S.,Tongji University | Shao Y.,Tongji University | Shao Y.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design | Gao N.,Tongji University | And 4 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2014

Algal organic matters (AOM), including extracellular organic matters (EOM) and intracellular organic matters (IOM), were comprehensively studied in terms of their biodegradability, disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potentials and membrane fouling. EOM and IOM were fractionated into hydrophobic (HP), transphilic (TP) and hydrophilic (HL) constituents. The HP, TP and HL fractions of EOM and IOM were highly biodegradable with BDOC/DOC ranging from 52.5% to 67.4% and the DBP formation potentials followed the order of HP > TP > HL, except of IOM-HL. Biodegradable process proved very effective in removing the DBP formation potentials. Moreover, the AOM characteristics were also evaluated during ultrafiltration (UF) treatment. Results demonstrated that UF favourably remove DOC and DBP formation potential of IOM than those of EOM. And the HL constituents played a more important role in membrane fouling than HP and TP. The UF foulants exhibited higher BDOC/DOC than AOM, suggesting EOM and IOM might enhance biofouling because more biodegradable proteins and polysaccharides were found in membrane foulants. Therefore, appropriate biological treatment, ultrafiltration, or combination of the both are potential options to address these algae-caused water quality issues. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Li D.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design | Yang M.,Nanjing Southeast University
Wuhan Ligong Daxue Xuebao (Jiaotong Kexue Yu Gongcheng Ban)/Journal of Wuhan University of Technology (Transportation Science and Engineering) | Year: 2014

Taking a nuclear household as a unit, structural equation model is developed based on the data from the activity-travel survey conducted in 2009 in Suzhou. Exogenous variables are household socio-demographics, and endogenous variables consist of household activity duration and trip-chaining travel time. The results indicate that household socio-demographics have remarkable influences on household activity duration and travel time. Additionally, there are interactions among different kind of household activity durations and trip chains travel time. Further, socio-demographics have indirect effects on household travel time through activity duration. Source


Deng J.,Tongji University | Shao Y.,Tongji University | Shao Y.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design | Gao N.,Tongji University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

A magnetic nanoscaled catalyst cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) was successfully prepared and used for the activation of oxone to generate sulfate radicals for the degradation of diclofenac. The catalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The effects of calcination temperature, initial pH, catalyst and oxone dosage on the degradation efficiency were investigated. Results demonstrated that CoFe2O4-300 exhibited the best catalytic performance and almost complete removal of diclofenac was obtained in 15min. The degradation efficiency increased with initial pH decreasing in the pH range of 5-9. The increase of catalyst and oxone dosage both had the positive effect on the degradation of diclofenac. Moreover, CoFe2O4 could retain high degradation efficiency even after being reused for five cycles. Finally, the major diclofenac degradation intermediates were identified and the primary degradation pathways were proposed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Li Z.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Li Z.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design | Hobson P.,Biology Research Group | An W.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) related odor events caused by cyanobacteria have been a very common problem to water supply. This paper investigated the effects of temperature (18 and 25 °C) and light intensity (10 and 100 μmol photons m-2 s-1) on the production behaviors of earthy odor compounds by three odorous cyanobacteria, i.e., the geosmin-producing planktonic Anabaena circinalis (Ana 318), geosmin-producing benthic Phormidium amoenum (Pho 012) and MIB-producing benthic Phormidium sp. (Pho 689). At the same time, the effects of biodegradation and volatilization on the fates of the released odor compounds in water were also evaluated. The combination of high temperature (25 °C) and light intensity (100 μmol photons m-2 s-1) favored the growth of the three cyanobacteria and the production of chl-a and odor compounds. However, higher chl-a and odor yields (average odor compounds per cell) were achieved for the two benthic cyanobacteria at the temperature of 18 °C. Most of geosmin was included within the cells for Ana 318 (95-99%) and Pho 012 (85-60%), while only 20-40% MIB was bound to the cells for Pho 689. The half-life times of MIB and geosmin due to volatilization varied between 18.8 and 35.4 days, while 8 out of 10 samples exhibited a half-life time (t1/2) for geosmin biodegradation shorter than 1 day (0.38-15.0 h), showing that biodegradation could affect the fate of geosmin significantly in aquatic environments. In comparison, biodegradation of MIB was much slower (t1/2: 122-2166 h). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that Pseudomonas- and Sphingomonas-like bacteria coexisted with cyanobacteria in the cultures, and may have played an important role in geosmin/MIB biodegradation. The result of this study will be helpful for better understanding and managing the earthy odor problems caused by cyanobacteria in water supply. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Liang S.,Tsinghua University | Zhang T.,Tsinghua University | Xu Y.,Tsinghua University | Xu Y.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design
Waste Management | Year: 2012

Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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