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Zhao Q.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhao Q.,China Academy of Tropical Agricultural science | Ran W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang H.,China Academy of Tropical Agricultural science | And 4 more authors.
BioControl | Year: 2013

Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis leads to severe economic losses. A bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) fortified with an antagonistic strain of Bacillus subtilis Y-IVI was used to control this disease. Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the efficacy and to elucidate biocontrol mechanisms for the disease. BIO significantly reduced the disease incidence. Population of F. oxysporum in plant shoots of the BIO treatment were about 1000-fold lower than the control. Population of Y-IVI remained high in muskmelon rhizosphere of the BIO treatment during the experiment. Concentration of antifungal lipopeptides, iturin A, in the BIO treatment was significantly higher than other treatments. Ten days after transplantation, the salicylic acid content in BIO-treated plant leaves was significantly higher than control. In conclusion, BIO effectively controlled muskmelon wilt, possibly because the antagonistic microbes effectively colonize the plant rhizosphere and shoots to preclude pathogen invasion. Furthermore, Y-IVI produces antifungal lipopeptides in the rhizosphere. © 2012 International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC).


Miao H.,China Academy of Tropical Agricultural science | Sun P.,China Academy of Tropical Agricultural science | Liu W.,China Academy of Tropical Agricultural science | Liu W.,Hainan University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4 , MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage. © 2014 Miao et al.


PubMed | Hainan University and China Academy of Tropical Agricultural science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage.


He X.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | He X.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Miyasaka S.C.,University of Hawaii at Hilo | Fitch M.M.M.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | And 4 more authors.
HortScience | Year: 2013

Productionof taro[Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott], a tropical root crop, is declining in many areas of the world as a result of the spread of diseases such as Taro leaf blight (TLB). Taro cv. Bun Long was transformed through Agrobacterium tumefaciens with the oxalate oxidase (OxO) gene gf2.8 from wheat (Triticum aestivum). Insertion of this gene was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis. One independent transformed line contained one gene insertion (g5), whereas a second independent line contained four copies of the gene. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed the expression of this gene in line g5. Histochemical analysis of the enzyme oxalate oxidase confirmed its activity increased in the leaves of line g5. A bioassay for resistance to TLB used zoospores of Phytophthora colocasiae to inoculate tissue-cultured plantlets. Transgenic line g5 showed the complete arrest of this disease; in contrast, the pathogen killed non-transformed plants by 12 days after inoculation. A second bioassay, in which spores of P. colocasiae were inoculated onto disks of leaves of one-year-old potted plants, confirmed that transgenic line g5 had greatly increased resistance to this pathogen. This is the first report to demonstrate that genetic transformation of a crop species with an OxO gene could confer increased resistance to a pathogen (P. colocasiae) that does not secrete oxalic acid (OA).


Jia R.Z.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | Ming R.,Urbana University | Zhu Y.J.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | Zhu Y.J.,China Academy of Tropical Agricultural science
Tropical Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Nucleotide-binding site (NBS) containing genes comprise the largest class in identified plant resistance genes. A total of 137 NBS class resistance genes were identified from the newly sequenced sacred lotus genome (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) through a reiterative computational sequence analysis. Three distinct groups of NBS-encoding genes were classified: 5 with Toll/interleukin-1 receptor homology (TIR) domain at N-terminal (TIR-NBS [-LRR (leucine-rich repeat)]), 37 with CC (coiled coil) domain (CC-NBS [-LRR]), and 95 with neither TIR nor CC at N-terminal (NBS [-LRR]). Sequence analysis revealed high divergence of NBS-LRR genes in sacred lotus. The result of cluster and syntenic analysis of NBS genes suggested a duplication and recombination event, which is consistent with the correspondent result of whole genome analysis. In addition, we also identified 52 NBS genes which have a putative NACHT domain embedded in the NBS domains. This characteristic has only been reported in animals, fungi and bacteria, suggesting that NACHT and NBS domains shared a similar ancient origin; and sacred lotus NBS (NACHT) genes may represent a transition role during the early evolution of disease resistance in land plants. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Chen B.,Hannan University | Huang X.,China Academy of Tropical Agricultural science | Liu X.,China Academy of Tropical Agricultural science | Zhou D.,China Academy of Tropical Agricultural science | And 4 more authors.
Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban | Year: 2013

Six soil samples including 3 wilt disease-infected samples and 3 disease-free samples were collected from the banana orchards in 3 areas in Lingao County, Hainan Province of South China. The soil physical and chemical properties were determined by conventional methods, and the diversity of soil bacterial community was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Then, the relationships between the soil bacterial community composition and the soil physical and chemical properties were investigated. In the same areas, most of the soil physical and chemical properties were poorer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards, with the most obvious difference in soil available P content and pH. The T-RFLP analysis showed the diversity of soil bacterial community was richer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards. The lengths of the dominant T-RFs in the 3 areas were 144, 147 and 233 bp, respectively. Through the comparison with phylogenetic assignment tool, it was deduced that the dominant species in the 3 areas were Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus and Eubacterium ruminantium. The distribution of most T-RFs was related to the soil alkaline hydrolyzable N, available K, available P and water content, and the relative abundance of most T-RFs was richer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards.


Jiang S.-Y.,South China Agricultural University | Xu H.-Y.,South China Agricultural University | Xu H.-Y.,China Academy of Tropical Agricultural Science | Wang H.-C.,South China Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

In this study, we investigated panicle size, blooming pattern, pollen viability and fruit set as well as changes in starch and soluble sugars in shoots and leaves, and N, P, K and free amino acids in panicles and flowers during panicle growth and blooming in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cvs. 'Feizixiao' ('FZX') and 'Baitangying' ('BTY'). This was done in order to understand the nutritional costs for flowering and its relation to fruit set. 'FZX' had significantly larger panicles than 'BTY' but similar final set (2.8 fruit vs 2.9 fruit per panicle, averaged over three seasons). The averaged fruit retention rate to harvest over three seasons was 18.5% in 'FZX' and 28.2% in 'BTY'. 'FZX' also had lower pollen viability. During panicle growth and especially blooming, the concentrations of carbohydrates in the shoots and leaves declined in both cultivars, with a greater decline in 'FZX'. As a result, 'FZX' had a fewer carbohydrate reserves available for fruit development than 'BTY'. 'FZX' panicle had a higher concentration of N, which provided nutrition for a larger panicle bearing a larger quantity of flowers. Abscising male flowers continued to accumulate N, P and K, which were not remobilized or reused but lost with flower shed. Before blooming, concentrations of total free amino acids increased in both cultivars. The concentration of Arg was higher than the other amino acids, suggesting flowering had a high demand for this amino acid. 'FZX' panicles had higher concentrations of amino acids than 'BTY'. These results suggest that the nutritional cost of flowering is higher in 'FZX' than in 'BTY'. The lower fruit retention rate in 'FZX' is related to the excessive consumption of carbohydrate reserve by flowering, leaving little for fruit set. Therefore, both pollen limitation and resource limitation contributed to the poor fruit set in 'FZX'. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Chen B.,Hannan University | Chen B.,China Academy of Tropical Agricultural science | Huang X.,China Academy of Tropical Agricultural science | Liu X.-Y.,China Academy of Tropical Agricultural science | And 5 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2013

Six soil samples including 3 wilt disease-infected samples and 3 disease-free samples were collected from the banana orchards in 3 areas in Lingao County, Hainan Province of South China. The soil physical and chemical properties were determined by conventional methods, and the diversity of soil bacterial community was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Then, the relationships between the soil bacterial community composition and the soil physical and chemical properties were investigated. In the same areas, most of the soil physical and chemical properties were poorer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards, with the most obvious difference in soil available P content and pH. The T-RFLP analysis showed the diversity of soil bacterial community was richer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards. The lengths of the dominant T-RFs in the 3 areas were 144, 147 and 233 bp, respectively. Through the comparison with phylogenetic assignment tool, it was deduced that the dominant species in the 3 areas were Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus and Eubacterium ruminantium. The distribution of most T-RFs was related to the soil alkaline hydrolyzable N, available K, available P and water content, and the relative abundance of most T-RFs was richer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards.


Zhu Y.J.,Hawaii Agriculture Research Center | Jia R.,China Academy of Tropical Agricultural Science
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Carica papaya is challenged by a wide range of pests and pathogens that diminish fruit yield and marketability. Today, heterologous transformation and interspecific and intergeneric hybridization are used to improve disease resistance. Transgenes and the introgression of resistance from papaya cultivars and its wild relatives have been used to control several strains of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) as well as other pathogens, such as Phytophtora palmivora. Expansions of these sources of resistance are needed to ensure that modern cultivars evolve with microbial populations. The papaya genome sequence is available and can be used to provide markers to identify and isolate R-genes from C. papaya and related species. The emergence of new diseases and movement of pathogens suggests that extending resistance durability will require a comprehensive strategy of integrating genetic resistance, cultural practices, and factors including innate protection provided by beneficial plant-microbe interactions. In this paper, the current status of papaya genome analysis for disease resistance genes and molecular markers from C. papaya and wild relative, Vasconcellea goudotiana are presented. Strategies of developing and coordinating the use papaya's disease resistance resources are discussed to ensure that this species continues to provide a valuable source of nutrition for the world's tropical and subtropical regions.


PubMed | Hannan University and China Academy of Tropical Agricultural science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology | Year: 2014

Six soil samples including 3 wilt disease-infected samples and 3 disease-free samples were collected from the banana orchards in 3 areas in Lingao County, Hainan Province of South China. The soil physical and chemical properties were determined by conventional methods, and the diversity of soil bacterial community was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Then, the relationships between the soil bacterial community composition and the soil physical and chemical properties were investigated. In the same areas, most of the soil physical and chemical properties were poorer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards, with the most obvious difference in soil available P content and pH. The T-RFLP analysis showed the diversity of soil bacterial community was richer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards. The lengths of the dominant T-RFs in the 3 areas were 144, 147 and 233 bp, respectively. Through the comparison with phylogenetic assignment tool, it was deduced that the dominant species in the 3 areas were Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus and Eubacterium ruminantium. The distribution of most T-RFs was related to the soil alkaline hydrolyzable N, available K, available P and water content, and the relative abundance of most T-RFs was richer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards.

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