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Beijing, China

Tai ping sheng hui fang, the first medical formulary of the Song Dynasty, compiled from the 3(rd) year of Taiping-xingguo reign to the 3(rd) year of Chunhua reign (978 ∼ 992), under the edict of the Taizong Emperor, was popularly applied and extensively circulated and called "the first formulary of the Dynasty". It is extremely significant in the medical history of the Song Dynasty due to its theory of prescription art, practical prescriptions and clinical practice. During the process of its circulation, different versions appeared, including the Guozijian Orthodox Version, Guozijian Small-character Version, Chongwen Hall Abridged Version, Newly Carved Version of Zhuanyunsi, and the Local Abridged Version, thus adapting to the demands of various walks of life in the society. Its unique role in the development of the Song society was founded by its introduction, application and popularization by the emperors, local officials, medical scholars, diplomatic envoys, and intellectuals. The "kind administration" of the authority and the government was further greatly facilitated by the involvement of the government and the introduction of printing. Its practical prescriptions became forceful tools to prevent and treat diseases, to conquer witchcraft, to protect local social security, and to pronounce the merits of officials and physicians at all levels. Source

Yang J.,Peking University | Quan J.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Yan B.,China Academy of science | He C.,Peking University
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice

As a response to severe urban congestion, megacities in China have sped up investment in urban rail transit. How effective urban rail investment and relevant planning activities can attract development in China's megacities has rarely been studied. Using eight years' land transaction data in Beijing (2004-2011), this research finds that the market environment in general supports higher density development around transit stations. However, relevant land market regulations and planning practices may prevent the development outcome from reaching its market potential. City governments should adjust existing planning and policy efforts, including more transparent and open process for station location selection, a better articulated investment program that improves transit service, social service and infrastructure quality in suburbs, a shift toward transaction modes of more competition, and a development guidance that grants density bonus to projects closer to metro stations. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Yang J.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Fang C.,China Academy of science | Ross C.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Song G.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Transportation Research Record

Improved mobility and accessibility for passengers and goods provide competitive advantages for megaregions. This article describes the trends in mobility in China's top three megaregions-the Capital Economic Zone, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta-and how megaregional planning has led to solutions to the challenges of mobility. China's experience is compared with trends in megaregions in the United States and the European Union. This comparative context confirms that existing trends in China's regional mobility carry severe energy and environmental challenges and that China's movement toward rail, particularly high-speed rail, provides a better chance to mitigate congestion and pollution problems. Source

Wang R.,China Academy of science | Wang R.,U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory | Wang R.,Peking University | Carilli C.L.,U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory | And 10 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal

We report our new observations of redshifted carbon monoxide emission from six z ∼ 6 quasars, using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. CO (6-5) or (5-4) line emission was detected in all six sources. Together with two other previous CO detections, these observations provide unique constraints on the molecular gas emission properties in these quasar systems close to the end of the cosmic re-ionization. Complementary results are also presented for low-J CO lines observed at the Green Bank Telescope and the Very Large Array, and dust continuum from five of these sources with the SHARC-II bolometer camera at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We then present a study of the molecular gas properties in our combined sample of eight CO-detected quasars at z 6. The detections of high-order CO line emission in these objects indicates the presence of highly excited molecular gas, with estimated masses on the order of 1010 M ⊙ within the quasar host galaxies. No significant difference is found in the gas mass and CO line width distributions between our z ∼ 6 quasars and samples of CO-detected 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 5 quasars and submillimeter galaxies. Most of the CO-detected quasars at z ∼ 6 follow the far-infrared-CO luminosity relationship defined by actively star-forming galaxies at low and high redshifts. This suggests that ongoing star formation in their hosts contributes significantly to the dust heating at FIR wavelengths. The result is consistent with the picture of galaxy formation co-eval with supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion in the earliest quasar-host systems. We investigate the black hole-bulge relationships of our quasar sample, using the CO dynamics as a tracer for the dynamical mass of the quasar host. The median estimated black hole-bulge mass ratio is about 15 times higher than the present-day value of 0.0014. This places important constraints on the formation and evolution of the most massive SMBH-spheroidal host systems at the highest redshift. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Huang K.,China Academy of science | Huang K.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Shi P.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Cao G.W.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Optics Letters

We demonstrate that the amplitude of vector-vortex beams has a Bessel-Gauss (BG) distribution through a rigorous vector electromagnetic analysis. We also investigate the intensity profiles in the focal plane of vector-vortex beams that are focused by a high numerical-aperture lens obeying the Helmholtz condition. Although the intensity of a vector-vortex BG beam with a topological charge n = 1 is nonzero along the axis in the focal plane, the beams with n ≠ 1 show discrete multiple spots which can be useful for optical trapping. © 2011 Optical Society of America. Source

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