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Zhang X.,Nanjing Forestry University | Zhang X.,Research Center for Economics and Trade in Forest Products of the State Forestry Administration | Xu B.,China Academy of Forestry | Wang L.,Nanjing Forestry University | And 5 more authors.
Forests | Year: 2016

Illegal logging, with its related trade of illegally harvested timber, is one of the main environmental and economic problems worldwide. Eliminating illegal timber consumption and production are two practical means to reduce illegal logging. However, the problem of determining which of the two means is more economical remains to be analyzed. In this study, an input-output analysis was conducted to evaluate the consumption and production of illegal timber in different countries. The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) was employed to analyze the effects of eliminating illegal timber consumption and production on the added value of the forest sector at global and national levels. Results indicated that eliminating illegal timber production is more economical than eliminating consumption at the global level. The former is estimated to decrease the added value of the global forest sector only by 3.37% compared to 7.31% by the latter in 2030. Eliminating the production of illegal timber will result in uneven distribution of social wealth in the forest sector, and will pass the cost of reducing illegal logging onto developing countries. Developed countries would gain more added value and market scale than the global average, whereas developing countries would suffer a loss if illegal timber production is eliminated. Hence, developed countries are encouraged to provide financial support to help developing countries reduce illegal logging. © 2016 by the authors.

PubMed | China Academy of Forestry, Nanjing Forestry University and Jiangnan University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health | Year: 2016

The carbon sequestration of harvested wood products (HWP) plays an important role in climate mitigation. Accounting the carbon contribution of national HWP carbon pools has been listed as one of the key topics for negotiation in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. On the basis of the revised Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) (IPCC), this study assessed the accounting of carbon stock and emissions from the HWP pool in China and then analyzed its balance and contribution to carbon mitigation from 1960 to 2014. Research results showed that the accumulated carbon stock in Chinas HWP carbon pool increased from 130 Teragrams Carbon (TgC) in 1960 to 705.6 TgC in 2014. The annual increment in the carbon stock rose from 3.2 TgC in 1960 to 45.2 TgC in 2014. The category of solid wood products accounted for approximately 95% of the annual amount. The reduction in carbon emissions was approximately twelve times that of the emissions from the HWP producing and processing stage during the last decade. Furthermore, the amount of carbon stock and emission reduction increased from 23 TgC in 1960 to 76.1 TgC in 2014. The annual contribution of HWP could compensate for approximately 2.9% of the national carbon dioxide emissions in China.

Wang S.,China Academy of Forestry | Hu Y.,Chendu Survey and Design Institute | Sun H.,China Academy of Forestry | Shi X.,China Academy of Forestry | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2014

It is well known that saline soil, which takes up about 25% of the whole land area, is one of the most widely distributed soils on Earth. In China, the saline area is over 34 million hm2, including one million hm2 coastal saline soil. Soil salinity refrains the development and growth of most plant species, except for few species like halophytes. To understand the mechanism of salt tolerance, many studies have been carried out on the herbaceous halophytes, the tolerant woody plants and the sensitive and tolerant crop plants, but much less is known concerning the salt susceptibility and tolerance of oak trees. Quercus virginiana and Quercus acutissima are two different origin oak trees. Q. virginiana, is considered as a moderately sensitive tree species to soil salinity according to US Salinity Laboratory classification. It is one of the dominant tree species along southeastern coast of the United States and has the extreme tolerance to high concentration of salt fog. Q. virginiana acorn was introduced to China in 2000 for the first time, and its tolerance to salts has been confirmed through the regional trial along the coastline of southeastern China. Q. acutissima is widely distributed in China and few researches are reported about its response on salt stress. The response of plants to excess salt is complex and involves some changes in morphology, physiology and metabolism. Among these changes, the variations changes in the biomass allocation and root morphological characteristics of plants are two important adaptive mechanisms under salt stress. In this research, the changes of root morphology and biomass accumulation of 1-year-old seedlings of Q. virginiana and Q. acutissima were investigated under higher concentration (150 mmol/L) and lower concentration (50 mmol/ L) of sodium chloride solution treatments. The results showed that the growth of shoots of two oak trees were significantly inhibited under higher concentration of salt stress, while no obvious changes were observed for the growth of shoots of Q. virginiana under lower concentrations of NaCl. The ratio of root to shoot for two oak trees increased under both concentration of NaCl, which was considered as a biomass allocation strategy for a certain class of plants under salt stress. For the two oak trees, salinity did not induce the significant change on the root biomass accumulation. While the root morphological responses under salt stress were different between two oak trees. For Q. virginiana, the total root length, root surface area and root volume were increased in various degrees under both lower and higher concentration of NaCl, and significant increasement was observed under lower concentration of NaCl, especially for the stimulation of fine roots with the diameter less than 2mm. The fine roots are more effective than the thicker roots in nutrient and water absorption. For Q. acutissima, although its root development and expandation were inhibited under salt stress, no significant difference was observed when compared to that of control. It was also observed that the different patterns of accumulation of Na+ and Cl- in roots for two oak trees. Therefore, according to the biomass allocation strategy and root morphological responses and ions accumulation patterns of two oak trees under salt stress, it may be deduced that the both oak trees have the similar biomass allocation strategy when exposed to salinity, but have totally different responses on the root development and salt ions accumulation. Q. virginiana could expand the root scope for more effective nutrient absorption to relieve the toxicity of redundant salt ions, while Q. acutissima restricted the expanding of roots in salinity environment due to the redundant uptake of salt ions, and thus lessens the further damage to roots.

Tang T.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology | Jia X.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology | Jia X.,China Academy of Forestry | Jiang W.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology | And 2 more authors.
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2015

Research on multi-scale temporal dynamics of lotic algal assemblages remains scarce. In this study, we analyzed epilithic algae sampled monthly from a Chinese subtropical mountain river network from 2004 to 2007, by using a multivariate time series modeling approach. We hypothesized that (1) multi-scale temporal dynamics exist within algal communities; (2) physical and chemical conditions drive algal temporal dynamics; and (3) tributary sites differ in algal temporal changes. This study revealed 2–4 site-specific algal temporal dynamics, contributed by 23–45% component taxa. Among the time-related taxa, percentages of high profile guild taxa were higher than both the low profile and the motile guild taxa. Several algal temporal dynamics were found to be driven by water temperature, conductivity, or current velocity, within which influences of conductivity at two sites resulted in directional changes in algal communities. Furthermore, tributary sites differed in algal temporal changes when compared to the two mainstream sites. Our findings imply that natural fluctuations and agricultural disturbance together shaped algal temporal dynamics in the studied river network. In conclusion, for accurately tracking algal temporal dynamics, we recommend that long-term and high-frequency biomonitoring protocols are developed. Moreover, both the mainstream and tributary sites should be monitored simultaneously. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Xiaoming C.,China Academy of Forestry | Yiming F.,China Academy of Forestry | Juanle W.,CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research | Gao Z.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

This paper presents a new drought assessment method by modifying the NDVI-Ts space, which named NDVI-Ts general space. Based on this method, the general dry side and wet side equation were established for the period of 1981 and 2010 in the Mongolian Plateau. The results showed that: 1) the NDVI-Ts general space was more stable for monitoring drought than that for the single time Remote Sensing data; 2) TVDI was lower in the areas with high latitude, high vegetation cover, well-growing vegetation, which indicated higher soil moisture.3) The dry level area was the largest one, and the normal area was the second largest, the wet level area was the third, the extremely dry and extremely wet area was the least.4)The results showed that the fluctuated area mainly occurred in the normal level and the dry level, the extremely wet level, the wet level and extremely dry level basically remained unchanged. It may be explored that, the aridification became more serious in the 1981 - 2012, the area transformation mainly occurred between the normal level and dry level. © 2014 SPIE.

Yang H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Guo Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Koide R.T.,Brigham Young University | And 5 more authors.
Fungal Ecology | Year: 2016

The arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is among the most ubiquitous symbiosis in the world. A meta-analysis of 759 articles (1978-2012) was conducted to test whether ecologically important host plant traits (N-fixation and C-fixation pathway) affect the response of the plant to mycorrhizal colonization. We found that the effect of N-fixation on mycorrhizal growth response (MGR) depended on whether the plant was woody or a forb. N-fixing forbs had a higher MGR than non-N-fixing forbs, but the reverse was true for woody plants. Moreover, C4-grasses had significantly higher MGR than C3-grasses, but no significant difference was found between C3 and C4 forbs, or between C3 and C4 woody species. Overall, woody species had higher MGR than any other functional group. These results demonstrate that MGR does depend on host functional characteristics, but neither N-fixation capacity nor C-fixation pathway are apparently fundamental controllers of MGR. Instead, it would appear possible that these traits influence MGR only insofar as they influence more fundamental functions such as P demand and P supply. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society.

Zhu M.,Henan Agricultural University | Yin H.,Henan Agricultural University | Yin H.,China Academy of Forestry | Liang L.,China Academy of Forestry | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Four hazelnut varieties Corylus avellana 'Barcelona', Corylus heterophylla Fisch 'Pingzhen 1#', two hybrid hazelnut' Liao zhen 3#' and 'Dawei' as test materials were used to study optimization of the technology for peeling Hazelnut kernel by lye. Both single factor experiment and L9 (34) orthogonal experiment were used to research the effect of different factors on peeling hazelnut kernel and optimize the technology for peeling hazelnut kernel by lye. The results showed that difficulty of peeling hazelnut kernel is closely related to variety of hazelnut. 'Pingzhen 1#' was the easiest peeling among the four hazelnut varieties while the two varieties hybrid hazelnut 'Liao zhen 3#' and 'Dawei' were the most difficult peeling. The optimization of the technology for peeling of each variety hazelnut respectively was to sock 2.5 minutes in 45°C 0.6% NaOH solutions for 'Pingzhen 1#', 2.5 minutes in 50°C 1.0% NaOH solutions for 'Barcelona', 4.0 minutes in 50°C 1.0% NaOH solutions for 'Liaozhen 3#' and 3.5 minutes in 50°C 1.2% NaOH solutions for 'Dawei'. The peeling rate of these four hazelnut kernels separately were 93%, 90%, 87% and 90%, and L value were all over 60. The good result of peeling was satisfied. The first controlling factor is the concentration of NaOH while soaking temperature and time must control according to the different variety of hazelnut.

Yao C.L.,Beijing University of Technology | Yao C.L.,Beijing IWHR Technology Co. | Chen J.,China Academy of Forestry | Liu L.P.,China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

Rockburst is a phenomenon of geological hazard due to excavation in brittle rockmass of high in-situ stress which endanger to the engineers and construction equipments with unexpectedly damaged. At present, researchers and engineers mainly concentrate to the requirement of rockburst and whether to arise. Although the delay characteristic of rockburst(DCR) has been realized and recorded, but the knowledge of the mechanism of this feature is insufficient. In the paper, the delay characteristic was researched from the stress release rate (SRR) of the excavation rock mass using the numerical simulation software. Firstly, using the core replacement technique, the relation of the SRR and core modulus reduction(CMR) was determined. Secondly, the mechanism of the DCR was analyzed from the elastic strain energy distribution and the plastic strain energy distribution in the different SRR. Finally, the plastic field shape and range under different SRR was contrasted and analyzed. Conclusions can be drawn as follows: with the increase of CMR value, the SRR shows increase trend in the form of exponent. In the process of excavation, the rockmass elastically deform under the low SRR value. When the SRR value equals certain degree, the portion of rockmass will be plastic field and behind the plastic region there will be arise a elastic strain energy centralized phenomenon. Under the different the SRR value, the field style change to the tension-shear field from the shear field in the rock mass and the rockburst rank obviously different. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Liu S.-Z.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | He X.-D.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Li J.-J.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Li J.-J.,China Academy of Forestry
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014

According to the theory of system science, this paper established an evaluation system of forest health including 13 indicators from system vitality, composition and resilience and forest environment aspects. To solve the problem in which the health evaluation values are unknown, that is, no decision attribute, this paper applied attribute importance degree of rough set theory to analyze the indexes' influence on forest health, with the forest health evaluation index weight being obtained based on knowledge granularity and attribute importance. We took eight secondary forest communities and two plantations in Daweishan Nature Reserve of Hunan Province as study cases. The results showed that the weights of 13 indexes were basically consistent with the expert scoring results. The evaluation results indicated that only one plot was at health level, seven at sub-health level and two at unhealthy level. Compared with the analytic hierarchy process method (AHP) and the principal component analysis method (PCA), this method did not need any prior information but took the information related to the forest health system as the basis to mine correlation and importance degree among factors directly reflecting forest health. It did not depend on experts' experience, and the greater the amount of information, the more objective the attribute weight was. The results suggested that the evaluation method was real and effective and the evaluation result was more objective, providing a theoretical basis for forest health assessment and management.

Zhou C.-X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Min S.-F.,Hubei Ecology Vocational College | Yan-Long T.,China Academy of Forestry | Wang M.-Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part D: Genomics and Proteomics | Year: 2015

We constructed an antennal transcriptome of the parasitoid wasp, Sclerodermus sp. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Our analysis of the transcriptome yielded 51,830,552 clean reads. A total of 46,269 unigenes were assembled, among which 29,582 unigenes exhibited significant similarity (E-values ≤ 10;bsup&- 5;esup&) to sequences in the NCBI nonredundant protein database. Gene ontology (GO) and cluster of orthologous groups (COG) analyses were used for the functional classification of these unigenes. We identified ten odorant binding proteins (OBPs), ten chemosensory proteins (CSPs), eight olfactory receptors (ORs), three ionotropic receptors (IRs), six gustatory receptors (GRs), and two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). The expression profiles of the ten OBPs were determined based on a qPCR analysis of RNA extracted from the antennae, legs, and abdomens of wingless and winged female adults and whole larvae and pupae. The highest levels of OBP5, OBP6, OBP7, and OBP9 expression were observed in the antennae of adult females. The highest levels of OBP1, OBP2, and OBP4 expression were observed in the abdomen of winged females. The highest levels of OBP3 and OBP10 expression were observed in larvae and pupae, respectively, whereas OBP8 was expressed at high levels in both larvae and pupae. Our findings establish a foundation for future studies of the molecular mechanisms of chemosensory perception in Sclerodermus sp. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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