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Chuang H.Y.,National Taiwan University | Lin C.H.,Chin Min Institute of Technology | Chu J.P.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Kao C.R.,National Taiwan University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2010

This letter reports a RuNx-bearing Cu layer that has the potential to replace both the wetting layer and the diffusion barrier layer in the conventional under bump metallurgy of flip-chip solder joints. This Cu-RuNx composite layer was deposited by reactive co-sputtering of Cu and Ru in N2 atmosphere. Experimental characterizations show that Cu-RuNx exhibits comparable solderability to pure Cu. Most importantly, Cu-RuNx has a dissolution rate at least one order of magnitude slower than that of pure Cu. A single layer exhibiting these two attributes might offer substantial advantage in cost reduction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Lu C.-T.,Asia University, Taiwan | Tseng K.-F.,Chin Min Institute of Technology
Computer Speech and Language | Year: 2010

A gain factor adapted by both the intra-frame masking properties of the human auditory system and the inter-frame SNR variation is proposed to enhance a speech signal corrupted by additive noise. In this article we employ an averaging factor, varying with time-frequency, to improve the estimate of the a priori SNR. In turn, this SNR estimate is utilized to adapt a gain factor for speech enhancement. This gain factor reduces the spectral variation over successive frames, so the effect of musical residual noise is mitigated. In addition, the simultaneous masking property of the human ears is also employed to adapt the gain factor. Imperceptive residual noise with energy below the noise masking threshold is retained, resulting in a reduction of speech distortion. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can efficiently reduce the effect of musical residual noise. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Lin C.H.,Chin Min Institute of Technology | Leau W.K.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Wu C.H.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2010

In this study, we observe useful properties of V1.1- and V 0.8N0.4-bearing copper (Cu) films deposited on barrierless silicon (Si) substrates by a cosputtering process. The Cu98.8(V 0.8N0.4), or Cu(VNx) for brevity, films exhibit low resistivity (2.9 μΩ cm) and minimal leakage current after annealing at temperatures up to 700 °C for 1 h; no detectable reaction occurs at the Cu/Si interface. These observations confirm the high thermal stability of Cu(VNx) films. Furthermore, since these films have good adhesion features, they can be used for barrierless Cu metallization. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Nie L.F.,Dalian University of Technology | Li X.N.,Dalian University of Technology | Chu J.P.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Wang Q.,Dalian University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

Interfacial structures and electrical resistivities of a carbon-doped Cu film at different annealing temperatures and times were investigated. The film was prepared by magnetron sputtering on barrierless silicon. After annealing, grain growth was distinctly hindered and a carbon-containing nanometer thick passive amorphous layer was formed at the film/substrate interface. The film had a resistivity of about 2.7 μ cm after annealing at 400 °C for 1 h and maintained a low resistivity of 3.8 μ cm even after 9 h annealing at 400 °C. The low electrical resistivity in combination with the high thermal stability makes carbon doping a promising technique for future Cu interconnects on barrierless Si. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. Source


Huang K.H.,Chin Min Institute of Technology | Tsai R.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Huang C.H.,Chung Yuan Christian University
Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2010

The effect of thermoviscosity (temperature-dependent viscosity) on the heat transfer in a power-law liquid film over an unsteady stretching sheet is investigated. Similarity analysis is used to transform the governing equations for mass, momentum and energy into a system of ordinary differential equations, which contain a thermoviscosity parameter θr, unsteadiness parameter S, generalized Prandtl number Pr and power-law index n. The film thickness, the temperature distributions, the local heat transfer rate, and the local skin-friction coefficient were obtained using the Chebyshev finite difference method (ChFD). The results show that thermoviscosity significantly increases the film thickness and the local heat transfer rate while decreasing the local skin-friction coefficient as θr→1. It is found that liquids with a higher power-law index will have a larger film thickness and a higher free-surface temperature, which indicate a lower local heat transfer rate, -θ'(0). © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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