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Hsu H.-F.,National Chiao Tung University | Hsu H.-F.,Chin Min Institute of Technology | Jhuo Y.-S.,National Chiao Tung University | Kumar M.,National Chiao Tung University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

The effect of a sulfate reducing bacteria immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on simultaneous sulfate reduction and copper removal was investigated. Batch experiments were designed using central composite design (CCD) with two parameters, i.e. the copper concentration (10-100 mg/L), and the quantity of immobilized SRB in culture solution (19-235 mg of VSS/L). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to model the experimental data, and to identify optimal conditions for the maximum sulfate reduction and copper removal. Under optimum condition, i.e. ∼138.5 mg VSS/L of sulfate reducing bacteria immobilized in PVA, and ∼51.5 mg/L of copper, the maximum sulfate reduction rate was 1.57 d-1 as based on the first-order kinetic equation. The data demonstrate that immobilizing sulfate reducing bacteria in PVA can enhance copper removal and the resistance of the bacteria towards copper toxicity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lu C.-T.,Asia University, Taiwan | Tseng K.-F.,Chin Min Institute of Technology
Computer Speech and Language | Year: 2010

A gain factor adapted by both the intra-frame masking properties of the human auditory system and the inter-frame SNR variation is proposed to enhance a speech signal corrupted by additive noise. In this article we employ an averaging factor, varying with time-frequency, to improve the estimate of the a priori SNR. In turn, this SNR estimate is utilized to adapt a gain factor for speech enhancement. This gain factor reduces the spectral variation over successive frames, so the effect of musical residual noise is mitigated. In addition, the simultaneous masking property of the human ears is also employed to adapt the gain factor. Imperceptive residual noise with energy below the noise masking threshold is retained, resulting in a reduction of speech distortion. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can efficiently reduce the effect of musical residual noise. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chuang H.Y.,National Taiwan University | Lin C.H.,Chin Min Institute of Technology | Chu J.P.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Kao C.R.,National Taiwan University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2010

This letter reports a RuNx-bearing Cu layer that has the potential to replace both the wetting layer and the diffusion barrier layer in the conventional under bump metallurgy of flip-chip solder joints. This Cu-RuNx composite layer was deposited by reactive co-sputtering of Cu and Ru in N2 atmosphere. Experimental characterizations show that Cu-RuNx exhibits comparable solderability to pure Cu. Most importantly, Cu-RuNx has a dissolution rate at least one order of magnitude slower than that of pure Cu. A single layer exhibiting these two attributes might offer substantial advantage in cost reduction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Huang K.H.,Chin Min Institute of Technology | Tsai R.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Huang C.H.,Chung Yuan Christian University
Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2010

The effect of thermoviscosity (temperature-dependent viscosity) on the heat transfer in a power-law liquid film over an unsteady stretching sheet is investigated. Similarity analysis is used to transform the governing equations for mass, momentum and energy into a system of ordinary differential equations, which contain a thermoviscosity parameter θr, unsteadiness parameter S, generalized Prandtl number Pr and power-law index n. The film thickness, the temperature distributions, the local heat transfer rate, and the local skin-friction coefficient were obtained using the Chebyshev finite difference method (ChFD). The results show that thermoviscosity significantly increases the film thickness and the local heat transfer rate while decreasing the local skin-friction coefficient as θr→1. It is found that liquids with a higher power-law index will have a larger film thickness and a higher free-surface temperature, which indicate a lower local heat transfer rate, -θ'(0). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Huang J.S.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Tsai R.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Huang K.H.,Chin Min Institute of Technology | Huang C.H.,Chung Yuan Christian University
Chemical Engineering Communications | Year: 2011

The steady natural convection along an inclined stretching surface in the presence of chemical reaction under thermal-diffusion and diffusion-thermo effects is studied. The governing equations for continuity, momentum, energy, and concentration are transformed by similarity transformation and then solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta integration with shooting scheme. Comparisons between the present data with previously published work are performed and found to be in very good agreement with each other. The obtained results show that the flow, thermal, and diffusion fields are influenced appreciably by the effects of endothermic or exothermic chemical reaction, angle of inclination, thermal radiation, magnetic field, and Soret and Dufour numbers. The physical phenomenon can be realized from the graphical profiles and in tabular form to depict special features of the solutions. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Nie L.F.,Dalian University of Technology | Li X.N.,Dalian University of Technology | Chu J.P.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Wang Q.,Dalian University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

Interfacial structures and electrical resistivities of a carbon-doped Cu film at different annealing temperatures and times were investigated. The film was prepared by magnetron sputtering on barrierless silicon. After annealing, grain growth was distinctly hindered and a carbon-containing nanometer thick passive amorphous layer was formed at the film/substrate interface. The film had a resistivity of about 2.7 μ cm after annealing at 400 °C for 1 h and maintained a low resistivity of 3.8 μ cm even after 9 h annealing at 400 °C. The low electrical resistivity in combination with the high thermal stability makes carbon doping a promising technique for future Cu interconnects on barrierless Si. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Lin C.H.,Chin Min Institute of Technology | Leau W.K.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Wu C.H.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2010

In this study, we observe useful properties of V1.1- and V 0.8N0.4-bearing copper (Cu) films deposited on barrierless silicon (Si) substrates by a cosputtering process. The Cu98.8(V 0.8N0.4), or Cu(VNx) for brevity, films exhibit low resistivity (2.9 μΩ cm) and minimal leakage current after annealing at temperatures up to 700 °C for 1 h; no detectable reaction occurs at the Cu/Si interface. These observations confirm the high thermal stability of Cu(VNx) films. Furthermore, since these films have good adhesion features, they can be used for barrierless Cu metallization. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Lin C.H.,Chin Min Institute of Technology | Leau W.K.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Wu C.H.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2010

In this study, films of a copper (Cu) alloy, Cu(RuHfN x ), were deposited on silicon (Si) substrates with high thermal stability by co-sputtering copper and minute amounts of Hf or Hf/Ru in an Ar/N 2 gas mixture. The Cu(RuHfN x ) films were thermally stable up to 720°C; after annealing at 720°C for 1 h, the thermal stability was great enough to avoid undesired reaction between the copper and the silicon. No copper silicide was formed at the Cu-Si interface for the films after annealing at 720°C for 1 h. The Cu(RuHfN x ) films appear to be good candidate interconnect materials. © 2010 TMS.


Jeang A.,Feng Chia University | Li H.-C.,Chin Min Institute of Technology | Wang Y.-C.,Feng Chia University
International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to determine the optimal parameters of cutting operations in order to obtain a minimised cost per unit time, with an acceptable quality level. The cost per unit for cutting operations is partly related to cutting time and tool life. The acceptable quality level is measured mainly in regard to surface roughness. The cutting time, tool life and surface roughness are all functions of cutting parameters. For cost and quality optimisation, in cutting parameter determination, an integration of three elements in problem formulation is necessary. However, with recent developments in computer hardware and software, the computer experimental approach consisting of both a computer simulation and a statistical method has become possible. With removal geometry configuration being specified, the computer simulation is performed by existing computer-aided engineering software, such as CATIA and Computer Cutting Data Service. The simulated outputs are analysed by statistical methods, such as response surface methodology, to obtain the predicted cutting time and tool life functions. These two functions will be further plugged into a unit cost model as the objective function, along with quality level as constraints. Then, the problem is formulated with mathematical programming to determine optimal cutting parameters for both quality and cost.


Lai H.-K.,Chin Min Institute of Technology
International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology, ICACT | Year: 2010

Based on the handwriting calculation, this paper realizes the arithmetic operations of fixed point using the 8-bit single chip microcomputer 8051.

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