Chimpanzee Sanctuary and Wildlife Conservation Trust CSWCT

Entebbe, Uganda

Chimpanzee Sanctuary and Wildlife Conservation Trust CSWCT

Entebbe, Uganda
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Fischer A.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Fischer A.,International Center for Insect Physiology and Ecology | Prufer K.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Good J.M.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

To gain insight into the patterns of genetic variation and evolutionary relationships within and between bonobos and chimpanzees, we sequenced 150,000 base pairs of nuclear DNA divided among 15 autosomal regions as well as the complete mitochondrial genomes from 20 bonobos and 58 chimpanzees. Except for western chimpanzees, we found poor genetic separation of chimpanzees based on sample locality. In contrast, bonobos consistently cluster together but fall as a group within the variation of chimpanzees for many of the regions. Thus, while chimpanzees retain genomic variation that predates bonobo-chimpanzee speciation, extensive lineage sorting has occurred within bonobos such that much of their genome traces its ancestry back to a single common ancestor that postdates their origin as a group separate from chimpanzees. © 2011 Fischer et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Krief S.,CNRS Eco-anthropology and Ethnobiology | Escalante A.A.,Arizona State University | Pacheco M.A.,Arizona State University | Mugisha L.,Chimpanzee Sanctuary and Wildlife Conservation Trust CSWCT | And 24 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2010

The origin of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most dangerous forms of human malaria, remains controversial. Although investigations of homologous parasites in African Apes are crucial to resolve this issue, studies have been restricted to a chimpanzee parasite related to P. falciparum, P. reichenowi, for which a single isolate was available until very recently. Using PCR amplification, we detected Plasmodium parasites in blood samples from 18 of 91 individuals of the genus Pan, including six chimpanzees (three Pan troglodytes troglodytes, three Pan t. schweinfurthii) and twelve bonobos (Pan paniscus). We obtained sequences of the parasites' mitochondrial genomes and/or from two nuclear genes from 14 samples. In addition to P. reichenowi, three other hitherto unknown lineages were found in the chimpanzees. One is related to P. vivax and two to P. falciparum that are likely to belong to distinct species. In the bonobos we found P. falciparum parasites whose mitochondrial genomes indicated that they were distinct from those present in humans, and another parasite lineage related to P. malariae. Phylogenetic analyses based on this diverse set of Plasmodium parasites in African Apes shed new light on the evolutionary history of P. falciparum. The data suggested that P. falciparum did not originate from P. reichenowi of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), but rather evolved in bonobos (Pan paniscus), from which it subsequently colonized humans by a host-switch. Finally, our data and that of others indicated that chimpanzees and bonobos maintain malaria parasites, to which humans are susceptible, a factor of some relevance to the renewed efforts to eradicate malaria.


Standley C.J.,Natural History Museum in London | Standley C.J.,University of Nottingham | Mugisha L.,Chimpanzee Sanctuary and Wildlife Conservation Trust CSWCT | Verweij J.J.,Leiden University | And 12 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Intestinal schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma mansoni, is endemic to Lake Victoria, with high prevalence of the disease observed in human lakeshore communities. However, nonhuman primates have recently been overlooked as potential hosts of the disease, despite known susceptibility. Methods: Using a variety of stool, urine, and serological diagnostic methods, 39 semi-captive wild-born chimpanzees and 37 staff members at Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Lake Victoria, Uganda, were examined for S. mansoni infection. Miracidia recovered from stool were DNA barcoded to investigate cross-over between humans and chimpanzees. The island was also surveyed for Biomphalaria intermediate host snails, which were examined for infection with S. mansoni. Results: Chimpanzees were unequivocally shown to be infected with intestinal schistosomiasis with a seroprevalence in excess of 90%. Three egg-positive cases were detected, although the sensitivity of the diagnostic tests varied due to earlier prophylactic praziquantel treatment. Miracidia hatched from chimpanzee stool revealed three DNA haplotypes commonly found in humans living throughout Lake Victoria, including staff on Ngamba Island, as well as two novel haplotypes. At one site, a snail was observed shedding schistosome cercariae. Conclusions: The anthropozoonotic potential of intestinal schistosomiasis on Ngamba Island is greater than previously thought. Moreover, the ability of chimpanzees to void schistosome eggs capable of hatching into viable miracidia further suggests that these nonhuman primates may be capable of maintaining a local zoonotic transmission of schistosomiasis independently of humans. The implications for management of captive and wild primate populations at risk of exposure are discussed. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2011.


Ellis R.J.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Bruce K.D.,King's College London | Jenkins C.,Public Health England | Stothard J.R.,Disease Control Strategy Group | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The gut microbiota plays a key role in the maintenance of healthy gut function as well as many other aspects of health. High-throughput sequence analyses have revealed the composition of the gut microbiota, showing that there is a core signature to the human gut microbiota, as well as variation in its composition between people. The gut microbiota of animals is also being investigated. We are interested in the relationship between bacterial taxa of the human gut microbiota and those in the gut microbiota of domestic and semi-wild animals. While it is clear that some human gut bacterial pathogens come from animals (showing that human - animal transmission occurs), the extent to which the usually non-pathogenic commensal taxa are shared between humans and animals has not been explored. To investigate this we compared the distal gut microbiota of humans, cattle and semi-captive chimpanzees in communities that are geographically sympatric in Uganda. The gut microbiotas of these three host species could be distinguished by the different proportions of bacterial taxa present. We defined multiple operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by sequence similarity and found evidence that some OTUs were common between human, cattle and chimpanzees, with the largest number of shared OTUs occurring between chimpanzees and humans, as might be expected with their close physiological similarity. These results show the potential for the sharing of usually commensal bacterial taxa between humans and other animals. This suggests that further investigation of this phenomenon is needed to fully understand how it drives the composition of human and animal gut microbiotas. © 2013 Crown Copyright.


Standley C.J.,Princeton University | Mugisha L.,Makerere University | Mugisha L.,Conservation and Ecosystem Health Alliance CEHA | Adriko M.,Ministry of Health | And 8 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2013

Despite treatment with praziquantel (PZQ) at 40 mg/kg in food, several chimpanzees on Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary (NICS) continue to excrete eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. To monitor disease, 8 animals were closely examined under anaesthesia in March 2011 with portable ultrasonography and by rectal snip biopsy. Schistosome genetic diversity had been previously assayed within 4 of these chimpanzees, finding extensive diversity with 27 DNA barcodes encountered, although none was common to all animals. Calcified schistosome eggs were found in the rectal snips from 5 chimpanzees and liver fibrosis was clearly documented, indicative of progressive disease in 6 animals, the latter being surprisingly advanced in a younger chimpanzee. All 8 animals were treated under anaesthesia by oral gavage with PZQ at 60 mg/kg dosing that was well tolerated. These animals were again re-examined in June 2012 using stool and urine sampling. Only 1 chimpanzee appeared to be free from infection and active egg excretion was confirmed in 6 animals. If intestinal schistosomiasis is to be controlled within this setting, a long-term disease management plan is required which should combine active case-detection with an insistent treatment regime with praziquantel for these chimpanzees, exploring perhaps the performance of even higher dosing. © Cambridge University Press 2012.


Mugisha L.,Chimpanzee Sanctuary and Wildlife Conservation Trust CSWCT | Mugisha L.,Makerere University | Kaiser M.,Robert Koch Institute | Kaiser M.,GenExpress GmbH | And 5 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2011

Little is known about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections in chimpanzees. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of chimpanzee HBV (chHBV) infections in captive, wild born chimpanzees in the sanctuary on Ngamba Island, Uganda and one sample from a wild free ranging chimpanzee. In one third of the plasma samples (32.4%; 12/37) we detected antibodies to Hepatitis B (core) antigen. Amongst those individuals HBV DNA was detected in one captive wild born and the wild chimpanzee. In contrast to the only available earlier described HBV sequence from the subspecies Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, there was no evidence of recombination with human HBV. Our sequences therefore are likely to present the " original" chHBV from P. t. schweinfurthii. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Mugisha L.,Chimpanzee Sanctuary and Wildlife Conservation Trust CSWCT | Mugisha L.,Robert Koch Institute | Leendertz F.H.,Robert Koch Institute | Opuda-Asibo J.,Makerere University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Primatology | Year: 2010

Background: Recent studies in non-human primates have led to the discovery of novel primate herpesviruses. In order to get more information on herpesvirus infections in apes, we studied wild born captive chimpanzees. Methods: Chimpanzees of the Ngamba island sanctuary, Uganda, were analyzed with pan-herpes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene and the glycoprotein B gene. The obtained sequences were connected by long-distance PCR, and analyzed phylogenetically. Results: Twenty-one of 40 individuals were infected with members of the Gammaherpesvirinae, two of them with a novel member of this subfamily. Phylogenetically, the novel virus fell into a clade of primate rhadinoviruses and the Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8), representing a third distinct rhadinovirus in chimpanzees. Conclusion: Non-human primates harbor several herpesviruses many of which are still unknown. This has implications to management of primates in sanctuaries requiring continuous updates on the management protocols to deal with potential occupational pathogens. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Mugisha L.,Chimpanzee Sanctuary and Wildlife Conservation Trust CSWCT | Mugisha L.,Makerere University | Pauli G.,P.A. College | Opuda-Asibo J.,Makerere University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Primatology | Year: 2010

Background: To understand immunological responses in chimpanzees vaccinated with live-attenuated vaccine (oral polio vaccine; OPV), serum neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were investigated over time. Methods: The neutralizing antibody titers against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were determined by microneutralization test using 100 ID50 of poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 (Sabin strains). Results: Neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were detected in 85.7%, 71.4%, and 65% of the serum from 42 chimpanzees tested 9 years post-vaccination. The neutralizing antibody titers in chimpanzees were similar to the documented levels in human studies as an indicator of vaccine efficacy. Conclusions: This study reveals persistence of neutralizing antibodies in chimpanzees for at least 9 years after vaccination with OPV. This first study in chimpanzees provides useful information for the evaluation of the success of vaccination with OPV in other captive apes. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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