Villa Presidente Frei, Chile
Villa Presidente Frei, Chile

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Munoz V.L.,Chilean Forest Institute INFOR | Rodriguez C.D.,Chilean Forest Institute INFOR | Balzarini M.,National University of Cordoba | Contreras A.T.,Chilean Forest Institute INFOR | Navarro-Cerrillo R.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2015

Pinus pinea is an interesting species especially for its fruit production, which depends upon vegetative growth. Growth of this species was analyzed along a climatic gradient in Chile, in all sites where it was planted in the last century. Three macrozones (MZs) located in the north, south and coastal range were identified according to height and DBH growth rates. We also examined growth in relation to several climatic variables (annual and seasonal temperatures, thermal oscillation, rainfall and a hydric index measuring water stress) and two cultural practices (irrigation and pruning). The relative contribution of each variable on growth measurements was assessed through regression trees and linear models. Growth of stone pine showed marked differences among the three MZs. In the South MZ, growth rate was the highest for height (0.35myear-1) and DBH (1.50cmyear-1), whereas in the Dry Coast MZ, the species showed the lowest growth rate in height (0.23myear-1) and DBH (0.87cmyear-1). Temperature and rainfall had a high significant impact on height growth, which was favored by an annual average temperature below 14°C, with high winter thermal oscillation (>14°C), spring water deficit lower than 400mm and annual rainfall over 1400mmyear-1. DBH growth was also favored by an average annual temperature below 14°C. Significant effects of pruning and irrigation were found. Stone pine growth throughout Chile was high compared to growth rates reported for other countries. However, in light of climate change, we should expect a reduction in growth rates especially in the North and Dry Coast MZs. Heat tolerance is proposed as a key breeding trait for increasing potential growth of stone pine. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Loewe-Munoz V.,Chilean Forest Institute INFOR | Balzarini M.,National University of Cordoba | Alvarez-Contreras A.,Chilean Forest Institute INFOR | Delard-Rodriguez C.,Chilean Forest Institute INFOR | Navarro-Cerrillo R.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2016

Pinus pinea L. is a Mediterranean species of economic importance due to its edible seeds, the pine nuts that have high market value. We analyzed fruit productivity by recording cone number per tree (CN) on 3464 trees distributed along a climatic gradient in Chile. Cone weight at harvest (CW) and in-shell pine nut number per cone (IS) were measured on 76 superior trees. Climatic and biometeorological variables, defined based on 11 physio-phenological reproductive phases, were related to fruit production traits. Results showed marked differences among North, South and Dry coast areas. The highest values of cone productivity (32 kg tree-1) and CN (62 cones tree-1) were recorded in the South. Stone pine cone production throughout Chile was favored by spring minimum temperature above 7 °C; annual thermal oscillation below 12 °C and late summer temperature below 6 °C during differentiation of reproductive shoots; and a high spring rainfall, except during male flowering period. Accumulated rainfall above 14 mm during 2 year-old conelet growth produced heavier cones. IS significantly increased when accumulated rainfall during cone ripening was above 133 mm. Therefore, water supply would be recommended as a cultural practice to mitigate the negative impact of reduced water availability on fruit productivity. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Loewe M. V.,Chilean Forest Institute INFOR | Gonzalez O. M.,Chilean Forest Institute INFOR | Balzarini M.,National University of Cordoba
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

Seven-year-old pure and mixed-species plantations containing cherry tree (Prunus avium L.) were analyzed at six sites in the central and southern area of Chile. The study examines the growth, pests, diseases, and stem form of cherry trees in mixtures and monocultures. Compared to pure plantations, mixed plantations had higher cherry height (up to 28%) in 5 out of 6 sites and higher cherry DBH (up to 34.5%) in 4 out of 6 sites, which could be attributed to a combination of effects, including the presence of nitrogen fixing species.Companion species can play an important role in cherry cultivation. With the exception of piche (Fabiana imbricata Ruiz & Pav.), cherry tree growth was faster and had better sanitary conditions in mixtures than in monocultures. Treatment (species associations) and environment interaction was significant, indicating the presence of different mechanisms underlying plantation effects at different sites, and the convenience of carefully identifying the characteristics of main and companion species, as well as site conditions, to propose suitable site-specific designs for mixed plantations. The growth characteristics of companion and primary species, as well as site conditions, should be selected and matched to improve plantation performance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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