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Feinstein J.,Childrens Outcomes Research Program | Feinstein J.,Aurora University | Dai D.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | Zhong W.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | And 3 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hospitalized infants, children, and adolescents are typically exposed to abstract numerous distinct medications during inpatient admissions, increasing their risk of potential drug2drug interactions (PDDIs). We assessed the prevalence and characteristics of PDDI exposure of pediatric patients treated in children's hospitals.METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients <21 years old hospitalized in children's hospitals throughout the United States. PDDIs were identified by using the MicroMedex DRUG-REAX system. We calculated the patients exposed to PDDIs, stratified according to the seriousness of the interaction; daily and cumulative counts of PDDI exposures; and characterization of the cited potential adverse effects.RESULTS: Of 498 956 hospitalizations in 2011, 49% were associated with ≥1 PDDI, with a "contraindicated" PDDI occurring in 5% of all hospitalizations, a "major" PDDI present in 41%, a "moderate" PDDI in 28%, and a "minor" PDDI in 11%. Opioids were involved in 25% of all PDDIs, followed by antiinfective agents (17%), neurologic agents (15%), gastrointestinal agents (13%), and cardiovascular agents (13%). One-half of all PDDI exposures were due to specific drug pairs occurring in ≤3% of patients per hospital day. The most common potential adverse drug events included additive respiratory depression (in 21% of PDDIs), bleeding risk (5%), QT interval prolongation (4%), reduced iron absorption/availability (4%), central nervous system depression (4%), hyperkalemia (3%), and altered diuretic effectiveness (3%).CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to PDDIs is common among hospitalized children. Empirical data are needed to determine the probability and magnitude of the actual harm for each specific PDDI, particularly for less common drug pairs. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

Feudtner C.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | Feudtner C.,University of Pennsylvania | Feinstein J.A.,Childrens Outcomes Research Program | Feinstein J.A.,Aurora University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Background: The pediatric complex chronic conditions (CCC) classification system, developed in 2000, requires revision to accommodate the International Classification of Disease 10th Revision (ICD-10). To update the CCC classification system, we incorporated ICD-9 diagnostic codes that had been either omitted or incorrectly specified in the original system, and then translated between ICD-9 and ICD-10 using General Equivalence Mappings (GEMs). We further reviewed all codes in the ICD-9 and ICD-10 systems to include both diagnostic and procedural codes indicative of technology dependence or organ transplantation. We applied the provisional CCC version 2 (v2) system to death certificate information and 2 databases of health utilization, reviewed the resulting CCC classifications, and corrected any misclassifications. Finally, we evaluated performance of the CCC v2 system by assessing: 1) the stability of the system between ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes using data which included both ICD-9 codes and ICD-10 codes; 2) the year-to-year stability before and after ICD-10 implementation; and 3) the proportions of patients classified as having a CCC in both the v1 and v2 systems.Results: The CCC v2 classification system consists of diagnostic and procedural codes that incorporate a new neonatal CCC category as well as domains of complexity arising from technology dependence or organ transplantation. CCC v2 demonstrated close comparability between ICD-9 and ICD-10 and did not detect significant discontinuity in temporal trends of death in the United States. Compared to the original system, CCC v2 resulted in a 1.0% absolute (10% relative) increase in the number of patients identified as having a CCC in national hospitalization dataset, and a 0.4% absolute (24% relative) increase in a national emergency department dataset.Conclusions: The updated CCC v2 system is comprehensive and multidimensional, and provides a necessary update to accommodate widespread implementation of ICD-10. © 2014 Feudtner et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Mitchell N.S.,University of Colorado at Denver | Dickinson L.M.,University of Colorado at Denver | Kempe A.,University of Colorado at Denver | Kempe A.,Childrens Outcomes Research Program | Tsai A.G.,University of Colorado at Denver
Obesity | Year: 2011

Obesity is a major public health issue in the United States. Many commercial weight loss programs are available, but their costs prohibit some people from participating. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), a low-cost, nonprofit weight loss program. Longitudinal mixed-effects repeated-measures modeling of the TOPS national database was used to model changes in weight for TOPS participants who joined in 2005, 2006, and 2007 and had at least one annual renewal between 2006 and 2008. Separate analyses were performed on individuals with consecutive annual renewal and those with nonconsecutive annual renewal. During the study period, 42,481 individuals renewed their membership at least once, including 2,427 individuals with nonconsecutive renewals. Individuals with consecutive renewals in TOPS lost 5.9-7.1% of their initial weight over a period of 1-3 years. People who remained in the program lost ∼6% of initial weight in the first year and maintained that weight loss for up to 3 years. TOPS participants with nonconsecutive renewal generally lost less weight than those with consecutive renewal. TOPS is associated with moderate weight loss among participants who remain in the program for at least 1 year. This degree of weight loss is likely to be clinically important for many individuals. TOPS is available at substantially lower cost than commercial weight loss programs, with similar results. Head-to-head trials of TOPS and popular commercial programs are needed. © 2010 The Obesity Society. Source

O'Leary S.T.,Aurora University | O'Leary S.T.,Childrens Outcomes Research Program
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2012

Background: A birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) is a primary focus of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus in the United States. We sought to assess the impact of maternal characteristics and hospital policy on the receipt of a birth dose of HBV. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from the 2008 Colorado birth registry. Hospital policy was assessed by state health department personnel. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association of maternal characteristics and hospital policy with nonreceipt of HBV. Results: A total of 64,425 infants were identified in the birth cohort, of whom 61.6% received a birth dose of HBV. Higher maternal education and income were associated with nonreceipt of HBV (master's degree vs. eighth grade or less: adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-1.85; >$75,000 vs. <$15,000: adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.13-1.30). Lack of a hospital policy stipulating a universal birth dose strongly predicted nonreceipt of a birth dose of HBV (policy with no birth dose vs. policy with a birth dose: adjusted OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 2.13-2.30). Conclusions: Maternal characteristics such as higher education and income are associated with nonreceipt of the HBV during the perinatal period. To effectively reduce risk of perinatal hepatitis B transmission, hospitals should stipulate that all infants are offered HBV and ensure that these policies are implemented and followed. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Feinstein J.A.,Childrens Outcomes Research Program | Feinstein J.A.,Aurora University | Feudtner C.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | Kempe A.,Childrens Outcomes Research Program | Kempe A.,Aurora University
Pediatrics | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Outpatient adverse drug events (ADEs) can result in serious outcomes requiring emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. The incidence and severity of ADEs in children with complex chronic conditions (CCCs), who often take multiple medications, is unknown. We sought to describe the characteristics of ADE-related ED visits, including association with CCC status; determine the implicated medications; and determine if CCC status increased the risk of ADE-related admission. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of ED visits by patients aged 0 to 18 years using a national sample. ADEs were identified by external cause of injury codes; cases with overdose, wrongful administration, self-harm, or diagnosis of malignancy were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test outcomes of having an ADE-related ED visit and of subsequent admission. All statistics accounted for the complex survey design. RESULTS: Of 144 million ED visits, 0.5% were associated with ADEs. Adjusting for age, gender, insurance type, day of week, and location of hospital, ADEs were associated with the presence of a CCC (odds ratio 4.76; 95% confidence interval: 4.45-5.10). The implicated medications differed significantly by CCC status. Adjusting for the same variables, ADEs were associated with subsequent inpatient admission (odds ratio 2.18; 95% confidence interval: 2.04-2.32) for all children; an interaction between ADE and CCC status was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: ED visits associated with ADEs were more likely to occur for children with CCCs, and the implicated drugs differed, but ADE-related admissions were not differentially affected by CCC status. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

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