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Philadelphia, PA, United States

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia is a children's hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with its primary campus located in the University City neighborhood of West Philadelphia next to the campus of the University of Pennsylvania. It is one of the largest and oldest children's hospitals in the world, and United States' first hospital dedicated to the healthcare of children Wikipedia.

Liacouras C.A.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic condition of increasing recognition and prevalence. In 2007, a consensus recommendation provided clinical and histopathologic guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of EoE; however, only a minority of physicians use the 2007 guidelines, which require fulfillment of both histologic and clinical features. Since 2007, the number of EoE publications has doubled, providing new disease insight. Accordingly, a panel of 33 physicians with expertise in pediatric and adult allergy/immunology, gastroenterology, and pathology conducted a systematic review of the EoE literature (since September 2006) using electronic databases. Based on the literature review and expertise of the panel, information and recommendations were provided in each of the following areas of EoE: diagnostics, genetics, allergy testing, therapeutics, and disease complications. Because accumulating animal and human data have provided evidence that EoE appears to be an antigen-driven immunologic process that involves multiple pathogenic pathways, a new conceptual definition is proposed highlighting that EoE represents a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. The diagnostic guidelines continue to define EoE as an isolated chronic disorder of the esophagus diagnosed by the need of both clinical and pathologic features. Patients commonly have high rates of concurrent allergic diatheses, especially food sensitization, compared with the general population. Proved therapeutic options include chronic dietary elimination, topical corticosteroids, and esophageal dilation. Important additions since 2007 include genetic underpinnings that implicate EoE susceptibility caused by polymorphisms in the thymic stromal lymphopoietin protein gene and the description of a new potential disease phenotype, proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophila. Further advances and controversies regarding diagnostic methods, surrogate disease markers, allergy testing, and treatment approaches are discussed. © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Source

Wallace D.C.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2012

Contrary to conventional wisdom, functional mitochondria are essential for the cancer cell. Although mutations in mitochondrial genes are common in cancer cells, they do not inactivate mitochondrial energy metabolism but rather alter the mitochondrial bioenergetic and biosynthetic state. These states communicate with the nucleus through mitochondrial 'retrograde signalling' to modulate signal transduction pathways, transcriptional circuits and chromatin structure to meet the perceived mitochondrial and nuclear requirements of the cancer cell. Cancer cells then reprogramme adjacent stromal cells to optimize the cancer cell environment. These alterations activate out-of-context programmes that are important in development, stress response, wound healing and nutritional status. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Maris J.M.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

Neuroblastoma, an embryonal cancer of the autonomic nervous system, is the most common cancer diagnosed during the first year of life. Although neuroblastoma accounts for disproportionately high morbidity and mortality among childhood cancers, it has one of the highest rates of spontaneous and complete regression. The author discusses recent advances in our understanding of neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Adamson P.C.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2015

The outcome for children with cancer has improved significantly over the past 60 years, with greater than 80% of patients today becoming 5-year survivors. Despite this progress, cancer remains the leading cause of death from disease in children in the United States, and significant short-term and long-term treatment toxicities continue to impact the majority of children with cancer. The development of targeted new agents offers the prospect of potentially more effective and less toxic treatment for children. More than a decade since imatinib mesylate was introduced into the treatment of children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, transforming its outcome, a range of targeted agents has undergone study in pediatric cancer patients. Early lessons learned from these studies include a better understanding of the adverse event profile of these drugs in children, the challenge of developing pediatric-specific formulations, and the continued reliance on successful development for adult cancer indications on pediatric drug development. The collaborative research infrastructure for children with cancer in the United States is well positioned to advance novel treatments into clinical investigations for a spectrum of rare and ultra-rare childhood cancers. A greater investment of resources in target discovery and validation can help drive much needed development of new, more effective treatments for children with cancer. © 2015 American Cancer Society. Source

Compositions and methods are provided for inhibiting T cell mediated destruction of virally transduced, trangene containing cells.

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