Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute

Orange, CA, United States

Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute

Orange, CA, United States
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Wesselschmidt R.L.,Beckman Research Institute | Schwartz P.H.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

This chapter describes some of the major issues to be considered when setting up a laboratory for the culture of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). The process of establishing a hPSC laboratory can be divided into two equally important parts. One is completely administrative and includes developing protocols, seeking approval, and establishing reporting processes and documentation. The other part of establishing a hPSC laboratory involves the physical plant and includes design, equipment and personnel. Proper planning of laboratory operations and proper design of the physical layout of the stem cell laboratory so that meets the scope of planned operations is a major undertaking, but the time spent upfront will pay long-term returns in operational efficiency and effectiveness. A well-planned, organized, and properly equipped laboratory supports research activities by increasing efficiency and reducing lost time and wasted resources. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Marei H.E.S.,Mansoura University | Althani A.,Qatar University | Afifi N.,Qatar University | Michetti F.,University Cattolica Del ore | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Neural stem cells (NSC) with self-renewal and multipotent properties serve as an ideal cell source for transplantation to treat neurodegenerative insults such as Parkinson's disease. We used Agilent's and Illumina Whole Human Genome Oligonucleotide Microarray to compare the genomic profiles of human embryonic NSC at a single time point in culture, and a multicellular tissue from postmortem adult substantia nigra (SN) which are rich in dopaminergic (DA) neurons. We identified 13525 up-regulated genes in both cell types of which 3737 (27.6%) genes were up-regulated in the hENSC, 4116 (30.4%) genes were up-regulated in the human substantia nigra dopaminergic cells, and 5672 (41.93%) were significantly up-regulated in both cell population. Careful analysis of the data that emerged using DAVID has permitted us to distinguish several genes and pathways that are involved in dopaminergic (DA) differentiation, and to identify the crucial signaling pathways that direct the process of differentiation. The set of genes expressed more highly at hENSC is enriched in molecules known or predicted to be involved in the M phase of the mitotic cell cycle. On the other hand, the genes enriched in SN cells include a different set of functional categories, namely synaptic transmission, central nervous system development, structural constituents of the myelin sheath, the internode region of axons, myelination, cell projection, cell somata, ion transport, and the voltage-gated ion channel complex. Our results were also compared with data from various databases, and between different types of arrays, Agilent versus Illumina. This approach has allowed us to confirm the consistency of our obtained results for a large number of genes that delineate the phenotypical differences of embryonic NSCs, and SN cells. © 2011 Marei et al.


Nethercott H.E.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute | Brick D.J.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute | Schwartz P.H.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

This chapter provides a method for reprogramming human dermal fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using three lentiviruses containing cDNAs for OCT4 and SOX2, KLF4 and C-MYC, and NANOG and LIN28, respectively. Lentiviral vectors are based on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and provide an effective means for the delivery, integration, and expression of exogenous genes in mammalian cells. Lentiviruses are attractive gene delivery vehicles as they are able to infect both proliferating and nonproliferating cells. Lentiviruses stably integrate into the genome without incurring cellular toxicity and can maintain sustained transgene expression during prolonged host cell proliferation and differentiation. In this protocol, we describe how to prepare lentiviruses, stably transduce human fibroblasts, and identify bona fide iPSC colonies based on morphological similarity to human embryonic stem cell (ESC) colonies and live-cell immunological staining using cell-surface markers of human PSCs such as Tra-1-60 and Tra-1-81. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Nethercott H.E.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute | Brick D.J.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute | Schwartz P.H.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

This chapter will describe the most common immunocytochemical method utilized in the stem cell field - using fluorescently tagged secondary antibodies to detect a primary antibody that is bound to an epitope on a molecule of interest. Secondary antibodies recognize the heavy chain of the primary antibody's isotype. Generally, these methods employ an incubation period of the sample with the primary antibody, a series of washes to remove unbound primary antibody, a secondary incubation period of the sample with the fluorescently conjugated secondary antibody, followed by washes and preparation for microscopy. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Stover A.E.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute | Schwartz P.H.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Embryoid body (EB) formation is a traditional method of inducing differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). It is a routine in vitro test of pluripotency as well as the first stage in many differentiation protocols targeted toward the production of a specific lineage or cellular population, as in neural differentiation (see Chapters 29 and 30). The induction of differentiation via EB formation is fairly straightforward. However, depending on the specific PSC culture conditions - substrate, feeders, medium, and eventual cell type of interest - various methods are applied in order to most routinely obtain healthy EB cultures. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Kumari D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Bhattacharya A.,New York University | Nadel J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Moulton K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 8 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2014

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequent cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism. It is caused by the absence of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in the regulation of translation of a subset of brain mRNAs. In Fmr1 knockout mice, the absence of FMRP results in elevated protein synthesis in the brain as well as increased signaling of many translational regulators. Whether protein synthesis is also dysregulated in FXS patients is not firmly established. Here, we demonstrate that fibroblasts from FXS patients have significantly elevated rates of basal protein synthesis along with increased levels of phosphorylated mechanistic target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, and phosphorylated p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p-S6K1). The treatment with small molecules that inhibit S6K1 and a known FMRP target, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit p110β, lowered the rates of protein synthesis in both control and patient fibroblasts. Our data thus demonstrate that fibroblasts from FXS patients may be a useful in vitro model to test the efficacy and toxicity of potential therapeutics prior to clinical trials, as well as for drug screening and designing personalized treatment approaches. We show that primary fibroblasts from fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients have elevated rates of protein synthesis and increased levels of translational regulators, p-mTOR and p-S6K1. Treatment with inhibitors of S6K1 and PI3K reduces rates of protein synthesis in these cells. Our data suggest that primary fibroblasts from FXS patients can be a useful cell-based model for high-throughput drug screens, evaluation of potential therapeutic compounds and designing personalized treatment approaches. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.


Schwartz P.H.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute | Brick D.J.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute | Nethercott H.E.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute | Stover A.E.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Culturing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) requires a significant commitment of time and resources. It takes weeks to establish a culture, and the cultures require daily attention. Once hESC cultures are established, they can, with skill and the methods described, be kept in continuous culture for many years. hESC lines were originally derived using very similar culture medium and conditions as those developed for the derivation and culture of mouse ESC lines. However, these methods were suboptimal for hESCs and have evolved considerably in the years since the first hESC lines were derived. Compared with mouse ESCs, hESCs are very difficult to culture - they grow slowly, and most importantly, since we have no equivalent assays for germline competence, we cannot assume that the cells that we have in our culture dishes are either stable or pluripotent. This makes it far more critical to assay the cells frequently using the characterization methods, such as karyotyping, immunocytochemistry, gene expression analysis, and flow cytometry, provided in this manual. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Stover A.E.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute | Schwartz P.H.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

This protocol describes the culture of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) under feeder-free conditions in a commercially available, chemically defined, growth medium, using Matrigel as a substrate and the enzyme solution Accutase for single-cell passaging. This system is strikingly different from traditional PSC culture, where the cells are co-cultured with feeder cells and in medium containing serum replacement. PSCs cultured in this new system have a different morphology than those cultured on feeder cells but retain their characteristic pluripotency. This feeder-free PSC culture system is conceptually similar to feeder-free systems that use mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-conditioned medium (MEF-CM) and Matrigel substratum. Instead of MEF-CM, a very complex and undefined medium, this new system uses StemPro SFM, a chemically defined medium that permits enzymatic passaging with Accutase to disaggregate the colonies into single cells. Accutase passaging has been used in conjunction with Stempro in our hands for 20+ passages without detectable karyotypic abnormalities. We will also review techniques for adapting cultures previously grown on MEFs, routine passaging of the cells, and cryopreservation. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Duan Y.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | Miao L.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | Ye H.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | Yang C.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | And 5 more authors.
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica | Year: 2012

Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is one of the most frequently used methods in the biological sciences and clinic diagnosis, but it is expensive and time-consuming. To overcome these limitations, we developed a faster and more cost-effective IFA (f-IFA) by modifying the standard IFA, and applied this method to track the progression of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in different cells. The f-IFA that we developed not only saves time, but also dramatically reduces the quantity of antibody (Ab), which will facilitate the application of IFA in clinic diagnosis. f-IFA requires only 15 min for blocking, 10 min incubation for each primary and secondary Abs, followed by 1 min extensive wash after each incubation. Only 25 μl of diluted Ab solution was needed for each coverslip at the primary and secondary Ab incubation steps. In addition, all steps were performed at room temperature. This f-IFA has been applied successfully to follow virion entry (pp65) and expression of viral genes (IE1, UL44, and pp65) in order to track the details of HCMV infection process. We found that ∼0.5 HCMV-infected T98G cells formed multiple-micronuclei (IE1 and nucleus staining) and had virus shedding (pp65 staining) by f-IFA, which could not be detected by the traditional IFA. Our results indicated that f-IFA is a sensitive, convenient, fast, and cost-effective method for investigating the details of virus infection progress, especially HCMV infection. The faster and cost-effective feature with higher sensitivity and specificity implies that f-IFA has potential applications in clinical diagnosis. © The Author 2012. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Stover A.E.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute | Brick D.J.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute | Nethercott H.E.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute | Banuelos M.G.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience Research | Year: 2013

Robust strategies for developing patient-specific, human, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based therapies of the brain require an ability to derive large numbers of highly defined neural cells. Recent progress in iPSC culture techniques includes partial-to-complete elimination of feeder layers, use of defined media, and single-cell passaging. However, these techniques still require embryoid body formation or coculture for differentiation into neural stem cells (NSCs). In addition, none of the published methodologies has employed all of the advances in a single culture system. Here we describe a reliable method for long-term, single-cell passaging of PSCs using a feeder-free, defined culture system that produces confluent, adherent PSCs that can be differentiated into NSCs. To provide a basis for robust quality control, we have devised a system of cellular nomenclature that describes an accurate genotype and phenotype of the cells at specific stages in the process. We demonstrate that this protocol allows for the efficient, large-scale, cGMP-compliant production of transplantable NSCs from all lines tested. We also show that NSCs generated from iPSCs produced with the process described are capable of forming both glia defined by their expression of S100β and neurons that fire repetitive action potentials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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