Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute

Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute

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Colley R.C.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute | Garriguet D.,Health Analysis Division | Janssen I.,Queen's University | Craig C.L.,Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Health Reports | Year: 2011

Background Rising obesity rates and declining fitness levels have increased interest in understanding what underlies these trends. This article presents the first directly measured data on physical activity and sedentary behaviour on a nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 20 to 79 years. Data and methods Data are from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Physical activity was measured using accelerometry. Data are presented as time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous intensity movement as well as steps accumulated per day. Results An estimated 15% of Canadian adults accumulate 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per week; 5% accumulate 150 minutes per week as at least 30 minutes of MVPA on 5 or more days a week. Men are more active than women and MVPA declines with increasing age and adiposity. Canadian adults are sedentary for approximately 9.5 hours per day (69% of waking hours). Men accumulate an average of 9,500 steps per day and women, 8,400 steps per day. The 10,000-steps-perday target is achieved by 35% of adults. Interpretation Before the CHMS, objective measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviour were not available for a representative sample of Canadians. The findings indicate that 85% of adults are not active enough to meet Canada's new physical activity recommendation.


Colley R.C.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute | Garriguet D.,Health Analysis Division | Janssen I.,Queen's University | Craig C.L.,Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Health Reports | Year: 2011

Background Physical activity is an important determinant of health and fi tness. This study provides contemporary estimates of the physical activity levels of Canadians aged 6 to 19 years. Data and methods Data are from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. The physical activity of a nationally representative sample was measured using accelerometers. Data are presented as time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous intensity movement, and in steps accumulated per day. Results An estimated 9% of boys and 4% of girls accumulate 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on at least 6 days a week. Regardless of age group, boys are more active than girls. Canadian children and youth spend 8.6 hours per day-62% of their waking hours-in sedentary pursuits. Daily step counts average 12,100 for boys and 10,300 for girls. Interpretation Based on objective and robust measures, physical activity levels of Canadian children and youth are low.


Colley R.C.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute | Wong S.L.,Health Analysis Division at Statistics Canada | Garriguet D.,Health Analysis Division at Statistics Canada | Janssen I.,Queen's University | And 2 more authors.
Health Reports | Year: 2012

Background: The accurate measurement of time devoted to physical activity, sedentary pursuits and sleep is diffi cult and varies considerably between surveys. This has implications for population surveillance and understanding how these variables relate to health. Methods: This sample of children (n = 878) was from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Moderate- to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behaviour and sleep duration were assessed using both a questionnaire and an accelerometer. This article compared parentreported and directly measured physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep, and examined their associations, alone or in combination, with selected health markers in children aged 6 to 11. Results: According to parent reports, the children in this study had an average of 105 minutes of MVPA, 2.5 hours of screen time and 9.7 hours of sleep per day; accelerometers recorded 63 minutes of MVPA, 7.6 hours of sedentary time and 10.1 hours of sleep per day. MVPA, measured by parent-report or accelerometry, was signifi cantly associated with body mass index. In a regression model, directly measured MVPA and sleep were signifi cantly associated with body mass index, and directly measured MVPA was signifi cantly associated with waist circumference. Parent-reported screen time approached a signifi cant association with body mass index. Interpretation: Time estimates and associations with health markers varied between parent-reported and directly measured physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep in children. These differences are important to understand before the two measurement techniques can be used interchangeably in research and health surveillance.


Garriguet D.,Ottawa | Colley R.C.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute
Health Reports | Year: 2012

The 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) collected directly measured physical activity on seven consecutive days for a representative sample of the population aged 6 to 79. Based on the CHMS, half of the active minutes in a day are accumulated between 11:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. For children, the most active period is lunch-time (11:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.), and for teenagers aged 15 to 19, the after-school period (3:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.). Children and youth are more active on weekdays than on weekends. Active children and youth tend to accumulate more minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity after school, whereas active adults do so at lunch time.


Reeks C.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute | Screaton R.A.,Sunnybrook Research Institute
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2015

We have developed a screening platform to identify dedicated human protein kinases for phosphorylated substrates which can be used to elucidate novel signal transduction pathways. Our approach features the use of a library of purified GST-tagged human protein kinases and a recombinant protein substrate of interest. We have used this technology to identify MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2 (MARK2) as the kinase for a glucose-regulated site on CREB-Regulated Transcriptional Coactivator 2 (CRTC2), a protein required for beta cell proliferation, as well as the Axl family of tyrosine kinases as regulators of cell metastasis by phosphorylation of the adaptor protein ELMO. We describe this technology and discuss how it can help to establish a comprehensive map of how cells respond to environmental stimuli.


Fitzpatrick E.M.,University of Ottawa | Fitzpatrick E.M.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute | Johnson E.,Western Quebec School Board | Durieux-Smith A.,University of Ottawa | Durieux-Smith A.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2011

Objective: Early access to sound through early cochlear implantation has been widely advocated for children who do not derive sufficient benefit from acoustic amplification. Early identification through newborn hearing screening should lead to earlier intervention including earlier cochlear implantation when appropriate. Despite earlier diagnosis and the trend towards early implantation, many children are still implanted well into their preschool years. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that affected late cochlear implantation in children with early onset permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Methods: Data were examined for 43 children with cochlear implants who were part of a group of 71 children with hearing loss enrolled in a Canadian outcomes study. Eighteen (41.9%) of the 43 children were identified through newborn screening and 25 (58.1%) through medical referral to audiology. Medical chart data were examined to determine age of hearing loss diagnosis, age at cochlear implant candidacy, and age at cochlear implantation. Detailed reviews were conducted to identify the factors that resulted in implantation more than 12 months after hearing loss confirmation. Results: The median age of diagnosis of hearing loss for all 43 children was 9.0 (IQR: 5.1, 15.8) months and a median of 9.1 (IQR: 5.6, 26.8) months elapsed between diagnosis and unilateral cochlear implantation. The median age at identification for the screened groups was 3.3 months (IQR: 1.4, 7.1) but age at implantation (median 15.8 months: IQR: 5.6, 37.1) was highly variable. Eighteen of 43 children (41.9%) received a cochlear implant more than 12 months after initial hearing loss diagnosis. For many children, diagnosis of hearing loss was not equivalent to the determination of cochlear implant candidacy. Detailed reviews of audiologic profiles and study data indicated that late implantation could be accounted for primarily by progressive hearing loss (11 children), complex medical conditions (4 children) and other miscellaneous factors (3 children). Conclusions: This study suggests that a substantial number of children will continue to receive cochlear implants well beyond their first birthday primarily due to progressive hearing loss. In addition, other medical conditions may contribute to delayed decisions in pediatric cochlear implantation. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Dhanani S.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario | Dhanani S.,University of Ottawa | Barrowman N.J.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute | Ward R.E.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Paediatric Anaesthesia | Year: 2011

Background: Accurate and reliable evaluation of cardiac index (CI) in critically ill pediatric patients can optimize their management. Although validated, noninvasive ultrasound measurement techniques have been previously shown to be unreliable because of observer variability. Objective: To confirm intra- and inter-observer reliability when using the noninvasive USCOM® in healthy anesthetized children. Methods: Prospective observational study at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, included newborns to 12 years of age undergoing elective surgery or magnetic resonance imaging. The USCOM® was used to assess CI via aortic flow with a trans-sternal approach. Two trained observers were responsible for taking two measurements of CI each at steady state in randomized succession after stable depth of anesthesia was achieved. Results: Fifty-nine patients were included. Forty-seven (80%) were between 3 and 7 years old, with 57% male. The mean difference ± sd for repeat CI measurements by each of two observers was 0.11 ± 0.47 and 0.05 ± 0.65 l·min-1·m-2, respectively. Intra-observer reliability for these repeat measurements by each observer determined by Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.92 and 0.85, respectively. The mean difference ± sd between observers was 0.16 ± 0.59 l·min-1·m-2, and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.87. The two observers subjectively rated measurements as 'Difficult' or 'Very difficult' only 14% (16/118) and 3% (4/118) of the time, respectively. No adverse events were reported. Conclusion: This study confirms that the USCOM® is relatively easy to use and reliable in healthy children when operated by trained users. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Colley R.C.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute
Health reports / Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information = Rapports sur la santé / Statistique Canada, Centre canadien d'information sur la santé | Year: 2012

The accurate measurement of time devoted to physical activity, sedentary pursuits and sleep is difficult and varies considerably between surveys. This has implications for population surveillance and understanding how these variables relate to health. This sample of children (n = 878) was from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Moderate- to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behaviour and sleep duration were assessed using both a questionnaire and an accelerometer. This article compared parent-reported and directly measured physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep, and examined their associations, alone or in combination, with selected health markers in children aged 6 to 11. According to parent reports, the children in this study had an average of 105 minutes of MVPA, 2.5 hours of screen time and 9.7 hours of sleep per day; accelerometers recorded 63 minutes of MVPA, 7.6 hours of sedentary time and 10.1 hours of sleep per day. MVPA, measured by parent-report or accelerometry, was significantly associated with body mass index. In a regression model, directly measured MVPA and sleep were significantly associated with body mass index, and directly measured MVPA was significantly associated with waist circumference. Parent-reported screen time approached a significant association with body mass index. Time estimates and associations with health markers varied between parent-reported and directly measured physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep in children. These differences are important to understand before the two measurement techniques can be used interchangeably in research and health surveillance.


Tremblay M.S.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute | Shields M.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute | Laviolette M.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute | Craig C.L.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Health reports / Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information = Rapports sur la santé / Statistique Canada, Centre canadien d'information sur la santé | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The fitness of Canadian children and youth has not been measured in more than two decades, a period during which childhood obesity and sedentary behaviours have increased. This paper provides up-to-date estimates of the fitness of Canadians aged 6 to 19 years. DATA AND METHODS: Data are from the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), the most comprehensive direct health measures survey ever conducted on a nationally representative sample of Canadians. Descriptive statistics for indicators of body composition, aerobic fitness and musculoskeletal fitness are provided by sex and age group, and comparisons are made with the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey (CFS). RESULTS: Fitness levels of children and youth have declined significantly and meaningfully since 1981, regardless of age or sex. Significant sex differences exist for most fitness measures. Fitness levels change substantially between ages 6 and 19 years. Youth aged 15 to 19 years generally have better aerobic fitness and body composition indicators than 20- to 39-year-olds. INTERPRETATION: This decline in fitness may result in accelerated chronic disease development, higher health care costs, and loss of future productivity.


Patent
Childrens Hospital Of Eastern Ontario Research Institute | Date: 2010-03-18

Disclosed are compositions and methods for augmenting activity of oncolytic viruses. Virus activity is augmented by sensitizing cancer or tumour cells through modulation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress response pathway, for instance by introducing into a tumour cell an agent effective to modulate ER stress response and sensitize the tumour cell. The tumour cells are then contacted with an oncolytic virus in an amount effective to reduce viability of the sensitized tumour cell. The oncolytic virus is thereby rendered more effective at lysing or killing the sensitized tumour or cancer cells.

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