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Matthay K.K.,University of California at San Francisco | Weiss B.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Villablanca J.G.,Childrens Hospital Los Angeles CHLA | Maris J.M.,University of Pennsylvania | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2012

131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is specifically taken up in neuroblastoma, with a response rate of 20%-37% in relapsed disease. Nonradioactive carrier MIBG molecules inhibit uptake of 131I-MIBG, theoretically resulting in less tumor radiation and increased risk of cardiovascular toxicity. Our aim was to establish the maximum tolerated dose of nocarrier- added (NCA) 131I-MIBG, with secondary aims of assessing tumor and organ dosimetry and overall response. Methods: Eligible patients were 1-30 y old with resistant neuroblastoma, 131I-MIBG uptake, and cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cells. A diagnostic dose of NCA 131I-MIBG was followed by 3 dosimetry scans to assess radiation dose to critical organs and soft-tissue tumors. The treatment dose of NCA 131I-MIBG (specific activity, 165 MBq/μg) was adjusted as necessary on the basis of critical organ tolerance limits. Autologous hematopoietic stem cells were infused 14 d after therapy to abrogate prolonged myelosuppression. Response and toxicity were evaluated on day 60. The NCA 131IMIBG was escalated from 444 to 777 MBq/kg (12-21 mCi/kg) using a 3 + 3 design. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was failure to reconstitute neutrophils to greater than 500/μL within 28 d or platelets to greater than 20,000/μL within 56 d, or grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxicity by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 3.0) except for predefined exclusions. Results: Three patients each were evaluable at 444, 555, and 666 MBq/kg without DLT. The dose of 777 MBq/kg dose was not feasible because of organ dosimetry limits; however, 3 assigned patients were evaluable for a received dose of 666 MBq/kg, providing a total of 6 patients evaluable for toxicity at 666 MBq/kg without DLT. Mean whole-body radiation was 0.23 mGy/MBq, and mean organ doses were 0.92, 0.82, and 1.2 mGy/MBq of MIBG for the liver, lung, and kidney, respectively. Eight patients had 13 soft-tissue lesions with tumor-absorbed doses of 26-378 Gy. Four of 15 patients had a complete (n = 1) or partial (n = 3) response, 1 had a mixed response, 4 had stable disease, and 6 had progressive disease. Conclusion: NCA 131I-MIBG with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is feasible at 666 MBq/kg without significant nonhematologic toxicity and with promising activity. COPYRIGHT © 2012 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine, Inc.

Reiff A.,Childrens Hospital Los Angeles CHLA | Reiff A.,Saban Research Institute | Reiff A.,University of Southern California | Shaham B.,Childrens Hospital Los Angeles CHLA | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used for the treatment of both adult and pediatric autoimmune diseases. However, HSCT has significant side effects (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, infertility, cardiotoxicity) and costs (HSC collection/harvesting, blood product support). In an attempt to avoid the toxicities and costs associated with HSCT, we investigated whether immune ablation similar to that achieved following myeloablative HSCT could be achieved by the intensive administration of an anti-CD52 antibody (Campath-1H antibody). The first patient treated with the treatment regime, who had refractory juvenile polymyositis, achieved immune ablation (the elimination of pre-therapy antigenspecific T lymphocyte immunity) and has had stable clinical improvement for more than 6 years. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Sheard M.A.,Childrens Hospital Los Angeles CHLA | Asgharzadeh S.,Childrens Hospital Los Angeles CHLA | Asgharzadeh S.,University of Southern California | Asgharzadeh S.,Childrens Oncology Group | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Immunotherapy | Year: 2013

Neuroblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to death induced by soluble, recombinant forms of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) (CD253/TNFSF10) because of low or absent expression of caspase-8 and/or TRAIL-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2/DR5/CD262/TNFRSF10b). However, their sensitivity to membrane-bound TRAIL on natural killer (NK) cells is not known. Comparing microarray gene expression and response to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, we observed a correlation between TRAIL-R2 expression and the sensitivity of 14 neuroblastoma cell lines to the cytotoxicity of NK cells activated with interleukin (IL)-2 plus IL-15. Even though most NK cytotoxicity was dependent upon perforin, the cytotoxicity was supplemented by TRAIL in 14 of 17 (82%) neuroblastoma cell lines as demonstrated using an anti-TRAIL neutralizing antibody. Similarly, a recently developed NK cell expansion system employing IL-2 plus lethally irradiated K562 feeder cells constitutively expressing membrane-bound IL-21 (K562 clone 9.mbIL21) resulted in activated NK cells derived from normal healthy donors and neuroblastoma patients that also utilized TRAIL to supplement cytotoxicity. Exogenous interferon-γ upregulated expression of caspase-8 in 3 of 4 neuroblastoma cell lines and increased the contribution of TRAIL to NK cytotoxicity against 2 of the 3 lines; however, relatively little inhibition of cytotoxicity was observed when activated NK cells were treated with an anti-interferon-γ neutralizing antibody. Constraining the binding of anti-TRAIL neutralizing antibody to membrane-bound TRAIL but not soluble TRAIL indicated that membrane-bound TRAIL alone was responsible for essentially all of the supplemental cytotoxicity. Together, these findings support a role for membrane-bound TRAIL in the cytotoxicity of NK cells against neuroblastoma cells. © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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