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Domingo-Fernandez R.,Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland | Domingo-Fernandez R.,National Childrens Research Center | Lindner S.,Childrens Hospital Essen | Mestdagh P.,Ghent University | And 17 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2012

LIN28B regulates developmental processes by modulating microRNAs (miRNAs) of the let-7 family. A role for LIN28B in cancer has been proposed but has not been established in vivo. Here, we report that LIN28B showed genomic aberrations and extensive overexpression in high-risk neuroblastoma compared to several other tumor entities and normal tissues. High LIN28B expression was an independent risk factor for adverse outcome in neuroblastoma. LIN28B signaled through repression of the let-7 miRNAs and consequently resulted in elevated MYCN protein expression in neuroblastoma cells. LIN28B-let-7-MYCN signaling blocked differentiation of normal neuroblasts and neuroblastoma cells. These findings were fully recapitulated in a mouse model in which LIN28B expression in the sympathetic adrenergic lineage induced development of neuroblastomas marked by low let-7 miRNA levels and high MYCN protein expression. Interference with this pathway might offer therapeutic perspectives. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University Hospital Freiburg, Institute for Medical Genetics, Institute For Humangenetik, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health and 13 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of human genetics | Year: 2016

Disorders of Golgi homeostasis form an emerging group of genetic defects. The highly heterogeneous clinical spectrum is not explained by our current understanding of the underlying cell-biological processes in the Golgi. Therefore, uncovering genetic defects and annotating gene function are challenging. Exome sequencing in a family with three siblings affected by abnormal Golgi glycosylation revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.92T>C (p.Leu31Ser), in coiled-coil domain containing 115 (CCDC115), the function of which is unknown. The same mutation was identified in three unrelated families, and in one family it was compound heterozygous in combination with a heterozygous deletion of CCDC115. An additional homozygous missense mutation, c.31G>T (p.Asp11Tyr), was found in a family with two affected siblings. All individuals displayed a storage-disease-like phenotype involving hepatosplenomegaly, which regressed with age, highly elevated bone-derived alkaline phosphatase, elevated aminotransferases, and elevated cholesterol, in combination with abnormal copper metabolism and neurological symptoms. Two individuals died of liver failure, and one individual was successfully treated by liver transplantation. Abnormal N- and mucin type O-glycosylation was found on serum proteins, and reduced metabolic labeling of sialic acids was found in fibroblasts, which was restored after complementation with wild-type CCDC115. PSI-BLAST homology detection revealed reciprocal homology with Vma22p, the yeast V-ATPase assembly factor located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Human CCDC115 mainly localized to the ERGIC and to COPI vesicles, but not to the ER. These data, in combination with the phenotypic spectrum, which is distinct from that associated with defects in V-ATPase core subunits, suggest a more general role for CCDC115 in Golgi trafficking. Our study reveals CCDC115 deficiency as a disorder of Golgi homeostasis that can be readily identified via screening for abnormal glycosylation in plasma.


Jansen J.C.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Cirak S.,Institute For Humangenetik | Van Scherpenzeel M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Van Scherpenzeel M.,Donders Institute for Brain | And 41 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2016

Disorders of Golgi homeostasis form an emerging group of genetic defects. The highly heterogeneous clinical spectrum is not explained by our current understanding of the underlying cell-biological processes in the Golgi. Therefore, uncovering genetic defects and annotating gene function are challenging. Exome sequencing in a family with three siblings affected by abnormal Golgi glycosylation revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.92T>C (p.Leu31Ser), in coiled-coil domain containing 115 (CCDC115), the function of which is unknown. The same mutation was identified in three unrelated families, and in one family it was compound heterozygous in combination with a heterozygous deletion of CCDC115. An additional homozygous missense mutation, c.31G>T (p.Asp11Tyr), was found in a family with two affected siblings. All individuals displayed a storage-disease-like phenotype involving hepatosplenomegaly, which regressed with age, highly elevated bone-derived alkaline phosphatase, elevated aminotransferases, and elevated cholesterol, in combination with abnormal copper metabolism and neurological symptoms. Two individuals died of liver failure, and one individual was successfully treated by liver transplantation. Abnormal N- and mucin type O-glycosylation was found on serum proteins, and reduced metabolic labeling of sialic acids was found in fibroblasts, which was restored after complementation with wild-type CCDC115. PSI-BLAST homology detection revealed reciprocal homology with Vma22p, the yeast V-ATPase assembly factor located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Human CCDC115 mainly localized to the ERGIC and to COPI vesicles, but not to the ER. These data, in combination with the phenotypic spectrum, which is distinct from that associated with defects in V-ATPase core subunits, suggest a more general role for CCDC115 in Golgi trafficking. Our study reveals CCDC115 deficiency as a disorder of Golgi homeostasis that can be readily identified via screening for abnormal glycosylation in plasma. © 2016 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.


Hoerning A.,Childrens Hospital Essen | Kohler S.,Childrens Hospital Essen | Kohler S.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Jun C.,University of Duisburg - Essen | And 9 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Immunology | Year: 2012

The peripheral chemokine receptors chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) and CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) have been reported to be associated with allograft rejection. The impact of the expression of immunosuppressive drugs on peripherally circulating CD4 + T cell subsets after renal transplantion is unknown. Expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 was investigated by flow cytometry in 20 renal allograft recipients participating in a prospective, randomized trial (NCT00514514). Initial immunosuppression consisted of basiliximab, cyclosporin A (CsA), mycophenolate sodium and corticosteroids. After 3 months, patients were treated either with CsA, mycophenolate sodium (MPA) plus corticosteroids (n=6), CsA and everolimus plus corticosteroids (n=8) or CsA-free (CsA free) receiving everolimus, MPA and corticosteroids (n=6). After initial reduction of CD4 +forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) + and CD4 +CD25 hiFoxP3 + regulatory T cells (T regs) (P<0·05; P<0·01), 3-month post-transplant percentages of T regs were reconstituted in CsA free and CsA lo arms compared to CsA reg 12 months post transplant. Expression of CCR5 and CXCR3 on CD4 +FoxP3 + and CD4 +FoxP3 - T cells 12 months post transplant was increased in CsA freeversus CsA reg. Increase in CCR5 +CXCR3 + co-expressing CD4 +FoxP3 - cells between 3 and 12 months correlated negatively with the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) slope/year [modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD); r=-0·59, P<0·01]. CsA, but not everolimus, inhibits both T reg development and expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 on CD4 + T cell subsets. Increase in CCR5 +CXCR3 + co-expressing CD4 +FoxP3 - T cells is associated with early loss in allograft function. © 2012 The Authors; Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2012 British Society for Immunology.


Gokbuget D.,ETH Zurich | Pereira J.A.,ETH Zurich | Bachofner S.,ETH Zurich | Marchais A.,ETH Zurich | And 4 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of myelination in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, the miRNAs species involved and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We found that let-7 miRNAs are highly abundant during PNS myelination and that their levels are inversely correlated to the expression of lin28 homolog B (Lin28B), an antagonist of let-7 accumulation. Sustained expression of Lin28B and consequently reduced levels of let-7 miRNAs results in a failure of Schwann cell myelination in transgenic mouse models and in cell culture. Subsequent analyses revealed that let-7 miRNAs promote expression of the myelination-driving master transcription factor Krox20 (also known as Egr2) through suppression of myelination inhibitory Notch signalling. We conclude that the Lin28B/let-7 axis acts as a critical driver of PNS myelination, in particular by regulating myelination onset, identifying this pathway also as a potential therapeutic target in demyelinating diseases.


PubMed | Childrens Hospital Essen and ETH Zurich
Type: | Journal: Nature communications | Year: 2015

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of myelination in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, the miRNAs species involved and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We found that let-7 miRNAs are highly abundant during PNS myelination and that their levels are inversely correlated to the expression of lin28 homolog B (Lin28B), an antagonist of let-7 accumulation. Sustained expression of Lin28B and consequently reduced levels of let-7 miRNAs results in a failure of Schwann cell myelination in transgenic mouse models and in cell culture. Subsequent analyses revealed that let-7 miRNAs promote expression of the myelination-driving master transcription factor Krox20 (also known as Egr2) through suppression of myelination inhibitory Notch signalling. We conclude that the Lin28B/let-7 axis acts as a critical driver of PNS myelination, in particular by regulating myelination onset, identifying this pathway also as a potential therapeutic target in demyelinating diseases.


PubMed | Childrens Hospital Essen
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical and experimental immunology | Year: 2012

The peripheral chemokine receptors chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) and CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) have been reported to be associated with allograft rejection. The impact of the expression of immunosuppressive drugs on peripherally circulating CD4(+) T cell subsets after renal transplantation is unknown. Expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 was investigated by flow cytometry in 20 renal allograft recipients participating in a prospective, randomized trial (NCT00514514). Initial immunosuppression consisted of basiliximab, cyclosporin A (CsA), mycophenolate sodium and corticosteroids. After 3 months, patients were treated either with CsA, mycophenolate sodium (MPA) plus corticosteroids (n = 6), CsA and everolimus plus corticosteroids (n =8) or CsA-free (CsA(free)) receiving everolimus, MPA and corticosteroids (n = 6). After initial reduction of CD4(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) and CD4(+) CD25(hi) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (T(regs)) (P < 0.05; P < 0.01), 3-month post-transplant percentages of T(regs) were reconstituted in CsA(free) and CsA(lo) arms compared to CsA(reg) 12 months post transplant. Expression of CCR5 and CXCR3 on CD4(+) FoxP3(+) and CD4(+) FoxP3(-) T cells 12 months post transplant was increased in CsA(free) versus CsA(reg). Increase in CCR5(+) CXCR3(+) co-expressing CD4(+) FoxP3(-) cells between 3 and 12 months correlated negatively with the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) slope/year [modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD); r =-0.59, P < 0.01]. CsA, but not everolimus, inhibits both T(reg) development and expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 on CD4(+) T cell subsets. Increase in CCR5(+) CXCR3(+) co-expressing CD4(+) FoxP3(-) T cells is associated with early loss in allograft function.

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